Annotated Bibliography of Vietnam War Film Criticism

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Alternate chronological arrangement (through July 2003)
La Salle University | Connelly Library | Special Collections | Vietnam | Online Texts

Compiled by John K. McAskill, Systems Librarian, La Salle University

Annotated bibliography of Vietnam War film criticism


MacDonald, Lawrence. "Vietnam movies distort reality and erase identities" Chicago tribune (Aug 1, 1990), Friday, p. 55.

[Americans cannot readily distinguish between the imaginary Vietnam created by Hollywood and the real place. Hollywood has failed to present Vietnam as a real place and the Vietnamese as human beings. The Vietnamese are presented either as stereotypical enemies or victims]

MacFadden, Patrick. "The jaundiced screen" Take one 1/1 (Sep-Oct 1966), p. 8-10.

[Film as war propaganda with reference to four unnamed North Vietnamese documentary films then circulating and To the shores of Hell which was made with U.S. Defence Dept. assistance]

Madden, Jackie (see under Forbes, Tessa)

Madsen, Axel. "Big silence: The Vietnam War" Sight and sound 37/1 (winter 1967-68), p. 18-19.

[Discusses The Green berets and films in development]

___________. "Vietnam and the movies" Cinema 4/1 (spring 1968), p. 10-13.

["Reflecting the visceral frustration of the American people over the conflict that no one wanted, the American cinema is sitting this one out.". Discusses The Green berets, Loin de Vietnam, Vivre pour vivre, and a Samuel Fuller project called "The rifle"]

Malo, Jean-Jacques. Apocalypse in Vietnam : a selected critical filmography of the war in Southeast Asia Thesis (M.A.)--Universite de Nantes (1992)

[Chiefly brief descriptions and analyses of 23 films later published in Vietnam War films]

______________. "Les filles de l'Oncle Sam et les filles de l'Oncle Ho: La femme dans le cinema sur les guerres du Viet-Nam" in Femmes, identities plurielles (Colloque "Femmes" de l'Universite de Nantes (Nantes : 1999)) (edited by Joelle Deniot [et al.]) Paris : Harmattan, c2001. (p. 159-173)

[Analyzes the evolution of depictions of women in Vietnamese and American dramatic films and television programs of the Vietnam wars. Vietnamese films developed from simplistic propaganda to more social realism in their depictions of women. American films went through a similar evolution in female images, from marginal characters to amazon warriors. Bibliographical references. In French]

______________. From Saigon to Paris : French cinema and the Vietnam Wars 1992.

[Unpublished paper read at the Popular Culture Association annual meeting, Louisville, March 1992]

______________. Vietnam War filmography : a critical overview and a continuing search for the genre 1991.

[Unpublished paper read at the Popular Culture Association annual meeting, San Antonio, March 1991]

______________. (see also under Vietnam War feature filmography and Vietnam War films)

Man, Glenn. "Marginality and centrality: The myth of Asia in 1970s Hollywood" East-West film journal 8/1 (1994), p. 52-67.

[Examines the depiction of Asians in McCabe and Mrs. Miller, Chinatown and The Deer hunter, three films which offer a critique of the dominant ideology and its handmaiden, the classical Hollywood paradigm. Finds that while the latter two films demythologize the dominant ideology, The Deer hunter uses classic Asian stereotypes. Bibliographical references]

Marin, Peter. "Coming to terms with Vietnam: Settling our moral debts" Harper's (Dec 1980), p. 41-56.

[Consideration and avoidance of moral questions raised by the Vietnam War in literature, in the first wave of Vietnam War films, and by veterans]

Marshall, Fred. "Viet war zones and films" Variety 279 (May 14, 1975), p. 83.

[On the state of the film industries of Laos, Cambodia and South Vietnam]

___________. "Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand: An update of war-ravaged lands - contrasting film enterprise of Burma and Thailand" Variety 295 (May 9, 1979), p. 375, 404.

Martin, Andrew. Critical approaches to American cultural studies : the Vietnam War in history, literature, and film Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Iowa, 1987. (217 leaves)

[Argues that the Vietnam War is a cultural crisis that continues to permeate American life and analyzes how popular culture has attempted to resolve what the American military and political system could not. The fourth and fifth chapters of the the thesis describe Hollywood's attempts to represent the war in films from the 1960s thru the 1980s. Concludes with the argument that the most recent representations of the war, especially on television, do not merely reflect the dominant ideology but provide symbolic resolutions to real social and political problems. Bibliographical references]

_____________. Receptions of war : Vietnam in American culture Norman, Okla. : Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

[Revision of thesis. Cinematic representations of the war have molded contemporary understanding of the Vietnam War. Chapter 4, "Vietnam in Hollywood," discusses eight major films. Chapter 5, "Melodramatic excess: The body in/of the text," examines the television series China Beach and Tour of duty. Bibliographical references and index]

_____________. "Vietnam and melodramatic representation" East-West film journal 4/2 (1990), p. 54-68.

[How and why US film and television habitually use melodrama when depicting the Vietnam War. Bibliographical references]

Maslin, Janet. "Why movies are only movies and a real war is a war" New York times (Jan 23, 1991), p. C11, C13.

[Against the background of the Persian Gulf War, cites several Vietnam War films to describe how war films provide the closure that is seldom available in real life]

Maude, Colette. "On '60s spirit" Time out n.979 (May 24, 1989), p. 37, 39.

[American cinema's current concentration on the contentious aspects of the 1960s and 1970s away from the battlefield in Vietnam comparing 1969, and Running on empty with the earlier Return of the Secaucis 7, and The big chill]

Maxwell, Richard. "Film: Military movies and the contradictions of American culture: The crazed war veteran has transcended his ideological origins and become a film staple" Cressett 44/9 (1981), p. 24-6.

[How the outcast war veteran appeals to both left and right and has been used in films like Escape from New York, Breaker Morant, and Cutter's way]

McAdams, Frank. “Vietnam: The emerging counterculture” and “The Vietnam era: A campus in O-hio” published as Chap. 7 and 8 in his The American war film : history and Hollywood Westport, CT : Praeger, 2002.

[Vietnam had an impact on World War II films produced while it was in progress, but aside from the Green Berets, the guilt and anger of the Vietnam experience was not addressed directly in film until after the war was over. After the Tet Offensive of 1968 Hollywood turned to producing counterculture films with a subtle anti-war messages. After the fall of Saigon, the first low-budget Vietnam combat films began to appear followed by a number of significant films of the “first wave” in the late 1970s and the “second wave” of film and television productions of the 1980s. War film chronology and bibliography]

McCaffrey, Donald W. "War and holocaust for some painful laughter" Chap. 3 in his Assault on society : satirical literature to film Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1992. (p. 36-67)

[Discusses nine Vietnam War related films. Bibliographical references and index]

McCombie, Brian. "Warriors on the silver screen" VFW, Veterans of Foreign Wars magazine 84/6 (February 1997), p. 16+

[Describes varying portrayals of soldiers and veterans. Generally movies about WWII and Korea portray veterans as dedicated and patriotic, but with few exceptions, Hollywood has proven itself incapable of treating the Vietnam War and its veterans fairly]

McConnell, Frank D. "Media: A name for loss: memorials of Vietnam" Commonweal 112 (August 9, 1985), p. 441-2.

[On the tenth anniversary of the fall of Saigon, the author considers how the war is remembered in film, television and elsewhere]

McInerney, Peter. "Apocalypse then: Hollywood looks back at Vietnam" Film quarterly 33/2 (winter 1979/80), p. 21-32.

[Describes the first wave of Vietnam War films which began in the fall of 1977 with Heroes and concludes in 1979 with The deer hunter and Apocalypse now]

Mechling, Elizabeth Walker and Mechling, Jay. "Vietnam and the second American inner revolution" in Cultural legacies of Vietnam (p. 171-98)

[American involvement in Vietnam began and ended in a cultural era which the authors describe as the "second inner revolution" which changed the social structural context of the modern American personality, producing a "new American individualism." Several films and television programs are cited to illustrate the clash between the new individualism and the Vietnam War. Bibliographical references]

Metcalf, Greg. "Discounting the '60s : Hollywood revisits the counterculture" in Beyond the stars : studies in American popular film. Vol. 5. Themes and ideologies in American popular film. Bowling Green, Ohio : Bowling Green State Univ. Popular Press, 1996. (p. 265-280)

["The '60s' of post-1960s Hollywood film is a romantic and marginalized period in American history. By focusing on individual relationships and family strife and settling on a checklist of conventional signifiers of the era, Hollywood films set in the '60s translate the social and political events of the day" as background for coming-of-age stories. Post-1960s films feature images of '60s leftovers as "the dropped-out, drugged-out and the sold out." '60s people are characterized as naieve, irrelevant or ridiculous. Filmography of 28 films]

Metrak, Krzysztof. "Poklosie tej wojny" Kino 14/12 (Dec 1979), p. 58-61.

[Reasons why American films avoided the Vietnam War until the late 1970s. In Polish]

Metress, Christopher. "Hopeless tatters: The American movie tradition and Vietnam in Stephen Wright's Meditations in green" Studies in the humanities 16/2 (1989), p. 111-20.

[Demonstrates "how an entire American generation had its conceptions of the Vietnam War shaped less by Danang and Khe Sanh than by Hollywood." Bibliographical references]

Michaud, Gene (see under Dittmar, Linda and From Hanoi to Hollywood)

Mikhailov, Bozhidar. "Vietnamskogo kino dnes" Kinoizkustvo 37 (Dec 1982), p. 66-70.

[In Russian]

Miller, Daniel Lee Thompson. The popular media reconstruction of the Vietnam War : texts and contexts Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Oregon, 1994. (ix, 336 leaves)

[The Vietnam War has been described as America's first television war, however, in the decade after the war, there was relatively little direct representation of the war in popular mainstream film or television. This changed in 1986 with the release of Platoon which initiated a five year period of intense popular media representations and national discourse about the war. A general view of the war developed during this period, with dominant and alternative characteristics, which has been repeated and reproduced throughout American culture since. Focusing on the 1986-91 period, the author analyzes the key representations of the war, as well as their historical, political, economic and ideological contexts. He draws conclusions from this analysis concerning the relationship between popular media, society and culture. Bibliographical references]

Mills, Nicolaus. "Movies: Memories of the Vietnam War" Dissent 26/3 (1979), p. 334-7.
[Analysis of the first wave of Vietnam War films concentrating on Who'll stop the rain, Coming home, and The Deer hunter]

Minganti, Franco. "Pop goes Vietnam: cultura musicale giovanile e storie de guerra" in Vietnam e rittorno (p. 201-220)

[Popular music and the war generally and in Vietnam War films. In Italian]

Minh, Chi. "Trung doi: Bo phim My moi ve chien tranh Viet Nam bang lam nao bong bu luan My" Nghe thuat dien anh 59 (1987), p. 49-50.

Minton, Torri. "Why can't we get out of Vietnam. 20 movies depict the war. 7,000 Nam books have been published. Nam is now a video, a comic book, a beer mug. Next year, Nam will enter high school classrooms. A nation's morbid fascinations and guilty pleasures" San Francisco chronicle (Apr 17, 1990), p. B3.

[Discusses the rising interest in the Vietnam War since the 1982 opening of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Quotes a number of Vietnam War authors, scholars and veterans and makes references to recent films]

Moberg, Virgil Boyd. Foreign correspondent films : a form for "knowing" America Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 1995. (211 leaves)

[Uses The year of living dangerously, Under fire, The killing fields, and Salvador to illustrate how texts are used as a site between competing ideologies to influence meanings of the past in the preent for the future. Shows how the films reflect changes in the national identity since the Vietnam War using a rhetorical studies approach to studying popular culture outlined by Barry Brummett. Bibliographical references]

Modleski, Tania. "A father is being beaten: Male feminism and the war film" in her Feminism without women : culture and criticism in a "postfeminist" age New York : Routledge, 1981. (p. 61-75)

[Uses Full metal jacket, Heartbreak Ridge, Lethal weapon, Platoon and Top gun as examples. Bibliographical references and index]

_____________. "A rose is a rose? Real women and a lost war" in The new American cinema (edited by Jon Lewis) Durham : Duke Univ. Press, 1998. (p. 125-45)

[Surveys the depiction of women in Vietnam War films with particular attention to Dogfight by Nancy Savoca]

Moncino, Elaine. A study to compare and analyze Vietnam War television and film programs presented in docudrama form Thesis (M.A.)--San Diego State University, 1987. (227 leaves)

[Focuses on Apocalypse now, Hamburger Hill, The Hanoi Hilton, Platoon, and Unnatural causes and includes interviews with Lionel Chetwynd, John Milius, Blue Andre, George Schaefer, Oliver Stone, and Jim Carabatsos. Bibliographical references]

Monterde, Jose Enrique. "La guerra de Vietnam en el cine" Historia y vida [Spain] 19/224 (1986), p. 110-25.

[A survey of the Vietnam War in cinema thru 1985. Includes references to documentary films. In Spanish]

Morris, Peter (see under Cultural legacies of Vietnam)

Morrow, Lance. "Nation: Viet Nam comes home: Two winning films signal the struggle to learn from a lost war" Time (Apr 23, 1979), p. 22-4, 27-8.

[A general review of the war in film and literature with a focus on Coming home and The Deer hunter]

Mortimer, Barbara Anne. From Monument Valley to Vietnam : revisions of the American captivity narrative in Hollywood film Thesis (Ph.D.)--Emory University, 1990. (176 p.)

[Captivity narratives, featuring white men rescuing white women held captive by Indians, were a primary theme of nineteenth century dime novels and early western films. With the decline of the western film, the captivity narrative's racial and cultural conflicts have been restaged in South America, Vietnam, and the streets of urban America. These films reveal post-war America's continuing concern with the challenges which the civil rights movement and feminism pose to the legitimacy of the white male hero. The author's Chapter Four argues that Martin Scorcese's Taxi driver is a postmodern revision of the captivity narrative. Chapter Five analyzes the pervasive use of the captivity plot in Vietnam War films to recuperate the hero's narrative authority and rationalize the American soldier's participation in the war. Bibliographical references]

Moser, Richard. "Vietnam: War and legacy" Radical history review no. 58 (winter 1994), p. 175-77.

[Syllabus for a course at Middle Tennessee State Univ., Spring 1993. Includes references to both dramatic and documentary films]

Motion picture guide (edited by Jay Robert Nash and Stanley Ralph Ross) Chicago : Cinebooks, 1985. (14 v.)

Motion picture guide ... annual (edited by Jay Robert Nash and Stanley Ralph Ross) Chicago : Cinebooks, 1986-[1993]

Movshovitz, Howie. "Pain not politics marks Viet films: War's reality, aftermath still lure Hollywood" Denver post (Oct 15, 1989), Lively arts, p. D1, D8.

[Contrasts World War II and Vietnam film treatments and analyzes the second wave of Vietnam War films. In talking to veterans, the author realized "that most Vietnam movies have been made for them." Rather than make the war "come out better," Hollywood continues to turn out the same two stories (terrified and confused men "mired in the grime and misery of a Vietnamese jungle" or veterans "wandering aimlessly through contemporary America") These sentimental treatments of soldier's experiences will never get the story told]

Muraire, Andre. "A propos du Vietnam: Crise de la representation dans le film de guerre americain" La licorne n. 36 (1996), p. 79-102.

[In the general context of American war films, finds the Vietnam films of the 1980s were a new hybrid which synthesized war, western and catastrope films into the MIA and POW sub-genres. Bibliographical references. In French]

____________. "Du guerrier a l'androgyne : sexe et "gender" dans le cinema americain de la guerre du Vietnam aux annees quatre-vingt-dix: Tentative synthese" Cycnos 13/1 (1996), p. 99-120.

[Representations of sex and women in 1980s Vietnam films. Bibliographical references. In French]

____________. "La guerre du Viet-nam a travers le western" CinemAction n. 86 (1er trimestre, 1998), p. 122-27.

[Discusses the impact of the Vietnam War on western films with particular reference to Soldier blue, Little Big Man, Chato's land, and Ulzana's raid. In French]

____________. "La guerre du Vietnam dans la cinema Americain" in L'opinion americaine devant la guerre du Vietnam (edited by Jean-Robert Rougle) Paris : Presses de l'Universite de Paris-Sorbonne, 1992. (p. 141-55)

[Examines the thematic functioning of American cinema, the ideological strategies used in response to the Vietnam War, and the reactions the war aroused in cinema. Bibliographical references. In French]

____________. "John Rambo ou la quete du sacre" Ideologies dans le monde anglo-saxon 5 (1992), p. 137-59.

____________. “Paradigms of resistance: The ‘Vietvet’ from ‘Nam’ to the American ‘jungle’” Cycnos 19/1 (2002), p. [145]-158.

[Analyzes depictions of Vietnam veterans in American films. The images show resilience as veterans separated from society reconcile reality and nightmare through therapy and suffering. Discusses the documentary Soldiers in hidingand the dramas Distant thunder and Sons in detail. Bibliographical references]

Murdoch, Blake. "'Nam battle refought by rival producers" Variety 344 (Sep 16, 1991), p. 36.

[Describes plans of rival Australian production companies to produce a film about the battle of Long Tan. Neither film was produced]

Murolo, Priscilla. "Remembering Vietnam" Radical history review 33 (Sep 1985), p. 182-85.

[VVAW activities to counter the effects of recent pro-war films]

Muse, Eben J. "From Lt. Calley to John Rambo: Repatriating the Vietnam War" Journal of American studies (Great Britain) 27/1 (1993), p. 88-92.

[Describes 1980s filmmakers rejection of the Calley image of the American male psyche run amok. First they portrayed Vietnam veterans as warrior-heroes who became scapegoats thru no fault of their own. Finally with Rambo: First blood, part II they avoided reality, romaticized the warrior, mythologized warfare, and reestablished American soldiers as geopolitical giants. Bibliography]

____________. The land of Nam : the Vietnam War in American film Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow, 1995.

[Revision of 1992 thesis. Bibliography and index]

____________. One epic narrative : the Vietnam War in American film 1948-90 Thesis (Ph.D)--State University of New York at Buffalo, 1992. (321 p.)

[Examines forces shaping Vietnam War film narratives during and after the war. The lack of combat films during the war years limited Hollywood's treatment of the war to allegories and stories about veterans and the protest movement. After the war, the structure of the story became dependent on the soldier's tour of duty and personal experience. Romance and wilderness themes from earlier films were developed and Vietnam gradually became a romance landscape through which soldiers traveled for their tour of duty. Using the veteran's experience as a focal point simplified the war's complexities. The veteran's victory over the jungle, the natives, the protestors and weak-willed leadership become America's victory in Vietnam. Concludes with a study of the Rambo character, a symbol of redemption for veterans and America and a reunion of the figures of warrior and king from earlier war films. Filmography and bibliography]

____________. "Romance, power, and the Vietnam War : romantic triangles in three Vietnam War films" Durham University journal 86/2 (July 1994), p. 307-13.

[Examines love triangles in three first wave Vietnam films: Coming home, The deer hunter, and Who'll stop the rain. Bibliographical references]

Mydans, Seth. "In Hanoi, an austere film diet: Disciplined by censors, the Vietnamese do make movies, but they prefer pirated Western ones on video" New York times (Sep. 1, 1996), sec. 2, p. 20.

[Describes the state of movie going in Vietnam and the distribution of American films about the war there. Also describes Vietnamese films to be shown at the Toronto Film Festival, and the official Vietnamese response to Cyclo]

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Napalm. "Army flicks" Great speckled bird 3/50 (Dec 14, 1970), p. 6.

Nave, Bernard. "Le Vietnam dans le cinema politique americain" Jeune cinema n.89 (Sep-Oct 1975), p. 12-16.

[General analysis of the Vietnam War in American film with concentration on Hearts and minds and Milestones. In French]

____________. "Vietnam et fiction dans le cinema americain" Jeune cinema n.126 (Apr-May 1980), p. 6-13.

[American cinema has the capacity to speak to political reality and integrate this in its productions. Numerous films have been effected by the military and political fiasco in South East Asia. Discusses a dozen such films made since the end of the war. In French]

Neale, Steve. "War films" in his Genre and Hollywood London, New York : Routledge, 2000. (p. 125-33)

[Analysis largely based on Jeanine Basinger's study of war film from the 1940s thru the 1970s (The World War II combat film : anatomy of a genre New York : Columbia Univ. Press, 1986) with reference to other Vietnam War studies and the argument over whether the Vietnam films constitute a genre of their own]

Nepoti, Roberto. "Il Vietnam 'minore' : documentari e b-movies" in Vietnam e ritorno (p. 73-84)

[Survey of documentaries, independent films, B-movies, and television films on the Vietnam War. In Italian]

Newsinger, John. " 'Do you walk the walk?': Aspects of masculinity in some Vietnam War films" in You Tarzan : masculinity, movies, and men (edited by Pat Kirkham and Janet Thumim) New York : St. Martin's Press, 1992. (p. 126-36)

[War films are tales of masculinity with themes of: boys becoming men, comradeship, loyalty, bravery and endurance, pain and suffering, and the horror and excitement of battle. But a number of popular films of the Vietnam War reveal a fractured masculinity, a masculinity under pressure, or one that has been found inadequate. Discusses Apocalypse now, Platoon, Full metal jacket, and Casualties of war. Bibliographical references]

Neyt, Geert (see under Pede, Ronnie)

Nghe thuat dien anh [periodical] Hanoi : Hoi Dien Anh Viet Nam, 19--?-

Nghi, Pham Thanh (see Pham, Thanh Nghi)

Ngo, Manh Lan. "The new changes of Vietnamese feature films in 1990" FilmVietnam no. 3 (1991), p. 1-3.

[Divides the 28 feature films produced into three categories: films on history; films on revolution and resistance; and films on issues of present life. Describes several]

____________. Phim hoat hoa Viet Nam Ha-noi : Van Hoa, 1977.

[History of animated films (both drama and documentary) in Vietnam]

____________. "Vietnamese films with today's renovations" FilmVietnam 1 (1989), p. 1-5.

[Reviews films produced following the 6th Party Congress under the "renovation of thinking and economic management' policy]

Ngo, Vinh Long (see under Coming to terms)

Nguyen, Diep Hoa. "Sacmau chien tran cua Holiut" Nghe thuat dien anh 60 (Jan 1988), p. 52-4.

[Holliwood's depiction of the Vietnam War. In Vietnamese]

Nguyen, Duy Can (see under Lich su dien anh cach mang Viet Nam)

Nguyen, Thi Nam. "Cinema and video, 1992" Vietnamese studies n. 37 (1993), p. 119-20.

[Reviews the state of Vietnamese film production with brief reference to selected fiction titles]

______________. "Cinema 1994" Vietnamese studies n. 46 (1995), p. 108-110.

[Reviews the state of Vietnamese film production with brief reference to selected fiction and documentary titles]

______________. "Cinema 1995" Vietnamese studies n. 49 (1996), p. 144-47.

[Reviews the state of Vietnamese film production with brief reference to selected fiction titles]

Nguyen, Thu. "The cinema in Vietnam" Cinema India 4/1 [n.13] (1987), p. 118.

[Brief history of Vietnamese (North) filmmaking since 1953]

Nichols, Bill. "Dear Vietnam: Shadows of forgotten warriors" Cinemaya no. 17-18 (autumn-winter, 1992-93), p. 10-14.

[Compares and contrasts American films of the second wave with the Vietnamese films that toured the U.S. from 1987-on. Both tend to avoid political issues and explore the effect of the war on individuals. They explore efforts to "forge common bonds and a sense of solidarity (in the company of men for Hollywood films, in the context of village and family for Vietnamese films)." Contrasts the two film groups' treatment of women. American films use the exchange of women as the basis of male bonding. Vietnamese films have a less gendered more culturally determined sense of collectivity and women are more active and central agents in these films]

Niogret, Hubert and Yann, Tobin. "Nantes 1992: 14e festival des 3 continents: Du Viet-nam au mambo" Positif n.391 (Sep 1993), p. 63-5.

[Brief notes on Vietnamese films shown at the festival with a general overview of the state of Vietnamese film production. In French]

Nobile, Vincent. Political opposition in the age of mass media: G.I.'s and veterans against the war in Vietnam. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of California, Irvine, 1987. (xv, 349 leaves)

[From the 1940s thru the 1960s the film industry, in conjunction with the federal government, the military and other mass culture industries, produced mass cultural objects whose messages constituted a code for war. They laud the heroism of the warrior, the evilness of the enemy and the glory of war. In the 1960s, as many soldiers and veterans came to oppose the Vietnam War, they adapted the symbols and objects of mass culture. This contributed to the deconstruction of the mass cultural code for war. As the antiwar movement ended, American mass culture reconstructed the code. By 1982 the film industry had re-established the heroic warrior, the evil enemy and the glory of war. But the cycle of construction, deconstruction and reconstruction suggests that mass media/culture is far more contentious than had previously been believed. Vietnam War G.I. and veteran resistance to the the war had a lasting effect on mass media/culture. Bibliography]

Noel, Benoit. "Comment en sortir" in "Retour au Viet-nam" [special section] Revue du cinema n.438 (May 1988), p. 50-52.

[On the second wave of Vietnam War films. In America the subject still maddens and fascinates. In French]

Norden, Martin F. The cinema of isolation : a history of physical disability in the movies New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers Univ. Press, 1994. (p. 265-76, 299-302, 310-11)

[Chiefly his Chap. 8 "High-tech heroics and other concerns" which discusses a number of films with disabled Vietnam veteran characters. Bibliographical references and index]

________________. "The disabled Vietnam veteran in Hollywood films" Journal of popular film and television 13/1 (1985), p. 16-23.

[Places Hollywood treatment of disabled Vietnam vets in historical and cultural context. Compares this with treatment of the subject in WWII films which show more awareness than escapist Vietnam films. Bibliographical references]

_______________. "The fantasy films of post-Vietnam America" Focus : teaching English language arts 10 (fall 1983), p. 70-8.

[These films provide clear-cut distinctions between good and evil and easily recognizable 'innocent' heroes. They meet the popular cultural needs created by the Vietnam War and Watergate. Bibliographical references]

Norindr, Panivong. "Filmic memorials and colonial blues: Indochina in contemporary French cinema" chapter 6 of his French colonial ideology in architecture, film, and literature Durham, NC : Duke Univ. Press, 1996. (p. 131-54)

Reprinted: Cinema, colonialism, postcolonialism : perspectives from the French and francophone world (edited by Dina Sherzer) Austin, TX : Univ. of Texas Press, 1996. (p. 120-46)

[Analyzes recent interest in Indochina by French writers and filmmakers including the films Indochine, L'amant and Dien Bien Phu. Bibliographical references]

Novelli, Martin. "Hollywood and Vietnam: Images of Vietnam in American film" in The Vietnam era (p. 107-24)

[John Wayne's World War II films helped form American expectations for Vietnam. Vietnam continued as a Cold War fantasy in three periods of filmmaking about the war: 1946 to 1968 (cold war and 'hawkish'); 1968-1978 (both pro- and anti-involvement); and 1980-1990 (pro-involvement and neo-Cold War). Bibliographical references]

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O'Brien, Margaret (see under Comber, Michael)

O'Brien, Tom. "Patriotism" Chap. 8 in his The screening of America : movies and values from Rocky to Rain man New York : Continuum, 1990.

[An examination of films of the preceeding fifteen years that show the evolution of American values. Of the 34 films discussed in this chapter, 23 have Vietnam War connections. Many movies made since Vietnam question the American national myth and the values placed on patriotism and heroism. Resurgent nationalism is reflected in films of the late 1980s. Bibliographical references]

Olla, Gianni. "Vietnam: Politica e sentimenti" Cineforum 23/226 (Jul-Aug 1983), p. 18-25.

[Report on Vietnamese films shown at the festival of Pesaro in 1983. In Italian]

O'Nan, Stewart. "First wave of major films" and "Second wave of major films" in Vietnam reader : the definitive collection of American fiction and nonfiction on the war (edited by Stewart O'Nan) New York : Anchor Books, 1998. (p. 257-77 and 439-56 respectively)

[Analyzes: (first wave) The Deer hunter, Coming home, Apocalypse now; and (second wave) Platoon, and Full metal jacket. Includes a selective filmography]

Osborne, Bob. Propaganda tool : the Hollywood war movie and its usurpation by TV Carlisle Barracks, Pa. : U.S. Army War College, 1990.

[Examines how the dominant role of Hollywood as a propaganda machine for molding public opinion during World War II was usurped by television after 1950. Unpopular wars in Korea and Vietnam led Hollywood generally to avoid those wars as subjects and Hollywood became heavily involved after Vietnam in anti-war themes. Bibliography]

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