Annotated Bibliography of Vietnam War Film Criticism

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Compiled by John K. McAskill, Systems Librarian, La Salle University


Annotated bibliography of Vietnam War film criticism

P

Palmer, William J. The films of the eighties : a social history Carbondale and Evansville, Ill. : Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1993.

[Includes two chapters ("2. The Vietnam War as film text" and "3. The 'Coming home' films") which focus on the war and its aftermath in the U.S. and discuss eleven films in detail. Index]

_____________. The films of the seventies : a social history Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1987.

[Includes three chapters devoted to films of the Vietnam War with detailed analysis of Go tell the Spartans and Apocalypse now. Index]

_____________. "The Vietnam War films" Film library quarterly 13/4 (1980), p. 4-14.

[Discusses the early failure of Hollywood to cover the war, producing instead pseudo-Vietnam War films like Taxi driver and Rolling thunder. In contrast, late 1970s films like The Deer hunter and Apocalypse now are seen as successful portrayals of the war in both realistic and symbolic terms]

Pareles, Jon. "The 60s reinvented : only the beat goes on" New York times (Feb 5, 1989), sec. 2, p. 1 ,21.

[On the use of 1960s music to recast the 1960s as a time of "naieve hopes, short-lived thrills, and minor conflicts, now long resolved" with some references to Vietnam War television programs]

Paris, Michael. "The American film industry and Vietnam" History today 37 (Apr 1987), p. 19-26.

[The film industry in the U.S. has a traditional role of justifying, explaining and encouraging American war efforts. But new social forces prevented the film industry from operating in its usual wartime role during the Vietnam War. Public opposition to the war led the industry reluctantly "to pander to this new, anti-establishement audience." However, the inherent conservatism of the industry produced a series of politically ambiguous films. Bibliography]

[Reviews: Spark, Alasdair (1988)]

Parish, James Robert and Hill, George H. Black action films : plots, critiques, casts and credits for 235 theatrical and made-for-television releases Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, 1989.

[Includes information on 20 Vietnam War related films, some not widely reviewed elsewhere. Index]

Pasick, Adam. "Straight from the soundtrack : the music of Vietnam via Hollywood" [1994?] (4 p.) originally from Foxnews.com but printed from: http://www.ourolympics.com/national/vietnam/index_spirit.sml

[Discusses the use of 1960s era songs in Vietnam War related film and television soundtracks]

Patterson, Robert L. "Teaching the Vietnam War" in Proceedings and papers of the Georgia Association of Historians 12 (1991), p. 115-125.

[Survey on the subject which includes questions on whether films, novels, poetry and popular songs provide the best index to attitudes of the 1960s]

Peake, Louis A. The United States in the Vietnam War, 1954-1975 : a selected, annotated bibliography New York : Garland, 1986.

[Includes a brief filmography of documentary and dramatic films]

Pearce, Kevin Jeffrey. Vietnam and the American war movie Thesis (M.A.)--San Diego State University, 1994. (v, 106 leaves)

[Examines thirty top selling war films, fifteen from before the Vietnam War (1947-61, called period A) and fifteen from after the war (1977-81, called period B), "in order to determine any change in the filmic representation of the American military that could be attributed to the Vietnam War." (p. 104) The general writings about these war films imply there was a vast difference in the way the military was represented. Each of the selected films was viewed by coders who completed detailed questionnaires which were analyzed using the SPSS program. The author tested three categories of hypotheses: about military support for war; about death and its representation; and about the image of the American military. The statistically significant findings were: fewer American soldiers were seen to support war in period B than in A; more soldiers were seen to die in period B than in A; and American military were seen much more negatively in period B than in period A. Bibliography]

Peary, Danny. Cult movies New York : Dell, 1981.

____________. Cult movies 2 New York : Dell, 1983.

Pede, Ronnie and Neyt, Geert. "Dageraad van de vernietiging?" Film en televisie [Belgium] n.368 (Jan 1988), p. 13-15.

[Survey of Vietnam War films. Director John Irvin and actors Anthony Barrille and Tommy Swerdlow discuss examples of the genre. In Dutch]

Peipp, Matthias (see under Holzl, Gebhard)

Penn, Stanley. "Focusing on youth: A new breed of movie attracts the young, shakes up Hollywood: Low cost films win raves: Dramas portray rebels' battles against society" Wall Street journal (Nov 4, 1969), p. 1, 27.

[The success of Easy rider and Alice's restaurant illustrate a new type of low-budget carefully crafted film bearing the stamp of an individual director or producer and tailored to a young audience. They tell stories small in scope but intense in drama and feature young, usually unknown, performers]

Perloff, James. "Anti-communist movies" New American 5/11 (May 22, 1989), p. 19-26.

[In a "comprehensive review of anti-Communist films" the author makes mention of more than a dozen Vietnam war related films in such categories as "Great escapes," "War stories" and "MIA-POW films"]

Pham, Ngoc Truong. "Dang sau nguoi hung Rambo" Nghe thuat dien anh 54 (Apr 1986), p. 38-40.

[On American films of the Vietnam War. In Vietnamese]

________________. "Der neue Mensch im vietnamesischen Spielfilm" Beitrage Film und Fernsehen 27/5 (1986), p. 173-81.

[On the presentation of the new type of man in Vietnamese feature films. In German]

________________. "Dien anh o Viet Nam truoc cach mang thang tam" Dien anh 28/2 (Apr 1982), p. ?

[Survey of cinema in Vietnam during the French colonial period from 1895-1945. In Vietnamese]

[Translated into Italian as "Cinema Vietnamita dalle origini al 1945" in Mostra internazionale del nuovo cinema (19th : 1983 : Pesaro, Italy). Cinemasia. Venice : Marsillo, 1983. (v. 1. Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, p. 16-21). Filmography]

________________. "Su ra doi cua dien anh dan toc 1945-1953" Tap chi dien anh 31 (Sep-Oct, 1982), p. 4-5.

[Continues the survey of cinema in Vietnam thru 1953. In Vietnamese]

Pham, Thanh Nhgi. "The rise of cinema in South Vietnam = L'essor du cinema dans la Republique du Sud-Viet-Nam" Young cinema and theatre 4 (winter 1974), p. 7-10.

[Origins and development of revolutionary film production in South Vietnam. In English and French]

_______________. "Vietnamese cinema - from its origins to 1945" Framework 25 (1984), p. 64-70.

[Problems of creating a Vietnamese cinema under French colonial rule]

Phan, Dinh Mau. "Reality of war through Vietnamese films" (typescript, probably a translation of an article first published in Vietnamese, 198-?)

[Vietnamese filmmakers and filmmaking, having developed during two major wars, are much influenced by war, but the war they depict in their films is much different than that of American directors. There are two distinct periods in Vietnamese war films: pre- and post-1975. Pre-1975 films focused on combat, officers and soldiers, with the objective of encouraging their audiences. After 1975, filmmakers were more concerned with analyzing the effects of the war on people other than soldiers]

[Reprinted in Vietnam War feature filmography (draft), p. 459-60; and Vietnam War films, p. xxiii-xxiv]

Piedra, Marin. "La cicatrizacion de las heridas" Cine cubano 94 (1979), p. 104-6.

[Vietnamese delegation to the 1979 Havana film festival is interviewed about the state of Vietnamese cinema and their experience during the war. In Spanish]

Pietlock, S. (see under Sheehan, C.)

Pitard, Derrick. "The Vietnam War on film" [2000?] http://www.sru.edu/depts/artsci/engl/dpitard/vietnamfilms.htm

[Selective filmography of ca. 500 titles with some links to other sites. Compiled by an English professor at Slippery Rock Univ, Pa.. Includes some documentaries longer than 30 min.]

Plazewski, J. "Wietnam w obiektywach filmowcow amerykanskich" Kino 25 (Jan 1991), p. 16-17.

[Selective chronological filmography of 83 American Vietnam War films (including some documentaries) released from 1964-1990 with brief descriptions. In Polish]

Podhoretz, John. "The talkies: Twenty years too late" American spectator 18 (Aug 1985), p. 26-7.

[Hollywood uses the 'return to Vietnam' theme in the second wave of Vietnam War films to avoid the reality of the defeat there the first time]

Portes, Jacques. "Hollywood et Viet-Nam: Des filmes loin de la guerre" Cahiers de l'Institut d'Histoire du Temps Present 34 (1996), p. 197-210.

[Studies the place of commercial films in the public mind, the system of thought to which they belong and how they were produced. Most American films about Vietnam are biased. Films of the 1980s are mainly in the mold of Rambo, with little reference to the Vietnamese people. With comparisons to French films about Algeria and Indochina (which are few). Includes a chronological list of principal American films. In French]

_______________. "Le Vietnam des ecrans" in his Les Americains et la guerre du Vietnam Brussells : Editions Complexe, 1993. (p. 310-18, 354)

[Vietnam War films are most often the result of the initiative of individual directors and producers rather than the big studios. Analyzes the chronology of the major films. In French]

Powers, Stephen (see under Rothman, Stanley)

Prager, Emily. "View from the top: Vietnam for kids" Penthouse 19 (Jun 1988), p. 35.

[Brief review of the second wave of Vietnam War films]

Pratt, John Clark. "Film and the Vietnam experience" in Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War : a political, social and military history (edited by Spencer C. Tucker) Santa Barbara : ABC-CLIO, 1998. (v. 1, p. 211-213)

[General overview of film production related to the war with specific mention of war films achieving critical notice]

* Preston, Ann E. Application of ethology to the motion picture portrayal of disabled Vietnam veterans Conference paper--Annual Conference of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, 1995. (15 leaves)

Prince, Stephen. A new pot of gold : Hollywood under the electronic rainbow, 1980-1989 New York : Scribner's, 1999. (p. 329-35+)

[Discusses the change in film perspective on Vietnam; Norris, Stallone and Stone films, and the veteran psycho-killer theme. Some 24 Vietnam War related films are mentioned. Bibliography and index]

"Professor rates movies mirror of society: Films on Viet war, family problems beat 'Raging bull'" Detroit news (Nov 25, 1989), p. B4.

[Frank E. Beaver, Univ. of Michigan film historian, says the most remembered American movies of the 1980s will be those dealing with the war in Vietnam and struggles within families even though Raging bull was voted best film of the decade by a recent poll of 54 critics. Vietnam War films reflect "a country and its artists still grappling with the complex impact of the nation's longest war"]

"Propaganda and films about the war in Vietnam" Film comment 4/1 (fall 1966), p. 4-39.

[Visuals and narration from Viet Cong films; narration of Why Vietnam?; synopsis of The rising storm (Noi gio); production notes on Days of protest; introduction, narration and visuals of While brave men die]

Purvis, Hoyt. "Vietnam re-viewed: The media and selective history" Commonweal 112 (May 31, 1985), p. 325-6.

[General description of media coverage on the tenth anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War and misrepresentation of opposition to the war]

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Q

Quart, Leonard. "Hollywood discovers Vietnam" USA today 107 (May 1979), p. 65.

[On the first wave of Vietnam War films]

____________ (see also under Auster, Albert)

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R

Rachleff, Owen S. "Vietnam in living color" Midstream 26/1 (Jan 1980), p. 41-5.

[The Vietnam War was a positive catalyst in American history, sparking the youth rebellion of the 1960s which involved changes in "the mores, music, and the basic gas-guzzling American way of life." Films produced in the first wave after the war relish the anti-heroic, even anti-patriotic aspect of American involvement. Analyzes Apocalypse now, The Deer hunter, and Hair]

Randles, Billy. Ideological film : a rhetorical construction of history Thesis (M.A.)--Baylor University, 1986. (v, 127 leaves)

[Demonstrates how the formation of popular historical consciousness is a rhetorical process thru an analysis of The Green berets, Apocalypse now, and Rambo: First blood part 2. Bibliography]

Rasmussen, Karen and Downey, Sharon D. "Dialectical disorientation in Vietnam War films: Subversion of the mythology of war" Quarterly journal of speech 77 (1991), p. 176-95.

[Dialectical disorientation is a rhetorical form that creates uncertainty and ambiguity through confrontation between two competitive and complimentary orientations. Examines this dynamic in The deer hunter, Apocalypse now, Platoon, and Full metal jacket. The films subvert traditional war mythology by presenting war as destructive rather than regenerative and purposeless rather than meaningful. Principles of militarism and moralism which govern behavior in war become inoperative. After detailing the development of disorientation in the films, the authors examine it's rhetorical and social implications. Bibliographical references]

Rasmussen, Karen; Downey, Sharon D.; and Asenas, Jennifer. “Trauma, treatment and transformation : The evolution of the Vietnam warrior in film” in War and film in America : historical and critical essays (edited by Marilyn J. Matelski and Nancy Lynch Street) Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, 2003. (p. 134-58)

[The Vietnam War, America’s longest, was a defeat marked by an absence of heroes. It’s legacy, “the Vietnam Syndrome, created anxiety about our nation’s ideology, identity, national mission, foreign policy, and images of what constitutes a warrior and a hero.” (p. 134-5) For 30 years it has lingered as unfinished business and, not surprisingly, pervades American media. What is surprising, however, is the magnitude, diversity and disparity of the images of the Vietnam warrior. These incongruities may be explained as different individuals coping differently with the consequences of combat, or as a reflection of continuing cultural confusion about how to interpret the Vietnam era. The authors argue, that viewed collectively, “narratives about Vietnam combatants reflect a rhetorical movement to define, attend to, and reconcile the cultural trauma precipitated by the Vietnam War. To achieve this end, Vietnam films cast war and the resulting Vietnam Syndrome as a catastrophic illness befalling the warrior. The resulting discourse of healing the warrior is a therapeutic rhetoric that functions symbolically to reinstate the honorable image of the warrior” and socially reconcile the Vietnam experience (p. 135). Bibliographical references]

Reinecke, Stefan. Hollywood goes Vietnam : der Vietnamkrieg im US-amerikanischen Film Marburg : Hitzeroth, 1993.

[Divides American Vietnam War films into four chronological phases: the 1960s thru the end of the war, characterized almost exclusively by the propagandistic The Green Berets; the moral renewal of the Carter administration characterized by mentally or physically crippled heros (Coming home and The deer hunter); the Reagan administration characterized by the comic book hero (Rambo); and the post-Reagan Bush administration, characterized by the second wave of Vietnam War films. After the second wave, the Vietnam War theme began to diffuse into other genres. The 1991 war with Iraq, which Bush declared had overcome the ignominy of Vietnam, seemed to bring an end to the Vietnam War in the movies. Filmography and bibliography. In German]

Reitinger, Douglas W. "Paint it black: Rock music and Vietnam War film" Journal of American culture 15 (fall 1992), p. 53-9.

[Vietnam War films contain varying amounts of the era's rock and roll music depending on their ideological orientation. Changes in rock music echo the changes in American consciousness during the 1960s. Films like Full metal jacket and Apocalypse now use the subversive authority of the music to establish the meaninglessness of the war. Bibliographical references]

Relin, David Oliver. "Hollywood's war: After years of ignoring the war, Hollywood is now usimg Vietnam to win hearts, minds, and money" Scholastic update [Teacher's ed.] 122 (Apr 6, 1990), p. 24-5.

[On the second wave of Vietnam War films]

"Retour au Viet-nam" [special section] Revue du cinema n.438 (May 1988), p. 49-72.

[Includes articles on US reaction to the war, reviews of Good morning, Vietnam and Braddock, and a filmography of the genre 1967-87. Relevant articles cited separately. In French]

Richardson, Granette Lyndon. Voices and Vietnam : a study of varying ideological perspectives in American fiction and film, 1975-1982 Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1994. (v, 273 leaves)

[Using the theories of Bakhtin, explores the way heteroglossia allows Vietnam novelists and filmmakers to debate the relevance and significance of the dominant ideology and challenge its hegemony. Includes analysis of four novels as well as The deer hunter, Go tell the Spartans and Apocalypse now. Bibliography]

Richman, Liliane G. Themes and ideology in the Vietnam films 1975-1983 Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Texas, Dallas, 1984. (vii, 306 leaves)

[Analysis of a body of twenty films which are a collective expression of the ideological, psychological, and philosophical climate in America during the Vietnam War and the period following. They provide indices of American attitudes toward the war, those who fought it and toward returning veterans. Through content analysis of Vietnam War films the permanent impact of the war on American society can be more precisely defined and better understood. Bibliography]

Ringe, Paul. "Films: Vietnam - a bust at the boxoffice too" Show 3 (Apr 1973), p. 50-51.

[Confused national opinion led Hollywood to avoid the Vietnam War. Two people and Limbo are cited as two examples of Hollywood's confused and cliched approach to the war]

Ringnalda, Donald. "Unlearning to remember Vietnam" in America rediscovered (p. 64-74)

[The second wave of Vietnam War films tend to treat the war as an "isolated aberration, about which we are now properly debriefed and exculpated." Compares the war as portrayed in Platoon with a number of prominent memoirs and novels. Bibliography]

Ripmaster, Terence (see review essay under From Hanoi to Hollywood)

Roberts, Randy. "Film and the Vietnam War" Chap. 19 in The Vietnam War : handbook of literature and research (edited by James S. Olson) Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, 1993. (p. 401-25)

[In World War II, the government and Hollywood cooperated to produce blatant propaganda. After that war, red scares and structural changes in the industry made Hollywood more conservative and less political. Industry leaders were generally unwilling to court controversy. The struggle of Americans to come to terms with the Vietnam War was thus largely contested outside the Hollywood studios. Analyzes films produced during the war as well as the first and second wave of films after the war. "The confusing war and its ambiguous results, it seems, will continue to occupy moviemakers for the next generation" (p. 419). Bibliography]

Rodney. "Vietnam films" Great speckled bird 5/23 (Jun 12, 1972), p. 6.

[Brief reviews of films to be shown in conjunction with anti-war demonstrations during a Nixon visit to Atlanta]

Rollins, Peter C. "United States - Vietnam reconciliation in 1994. What do our feature films tell us?" National forum 74/4 (fall 1994), p. 30+ [4 p.]

[Many Americans base their opinions on the Vietnam War on Hollywood feature films about it. Debates have followed each new film on the war since Apocalypse now. These include Platoon, Hanoi Hilton, The killing fields, and Heaven and earth. Taking a conservative perspective the author criticizes Hollywood's representations of the war in general and concludes that only distance from Vietnam-related feature films will allow us to clearly reappraise the Vietnam experience]

____________. "Vietnam and American culture" Journal of American culture 14 (winter 1991), p. 77-84.

[Review essay on Fourteen landing zones (1991), From Hanoi to Hollywood (1990), and America rediscovered (1991). The reviewer finds From Hanoi to Hollywood sometimes "strident" and "flawed" (p. 79), though coverage of the impact of television and documentary films deserves praise. America rediscovered is "too belletristic" (p. 82), too focused on the literature and uninformed by historical research]

____________. "The Vietnam War: Perceptions through literature, film and television" American quarterly 36/3 (1984), p. 419-32.

[General review of information sources and films with descriptions of three major collections: The Vietnam War Veteran Archives; The Vietnam War Literature Collection; and the Indochina Studies Project of the Institute of East Asian Studies]

Romanowski, William D. (see under Denisoff, R. Serge)

Rosen, Miriam. "Comprehending the Vietnam War: An interview with Ho Quang Minh" Cineaste 17/2 (1989), p. 38-9.

Rosenbaum, Jonathan. "Vietnam dispatches : Vietnam was the great crisis of conscience in modern American history, but its meaning has continued to be evaded by Hollywood" in The world at war (edited by Ann Lloyd) London : Orbis ; New York : RCA Direct Marketing, 1982. (p. 79-82)

[Discusses the major first wave films. "Casting the Reds as the bad guys helped to assuage the American guilt about Vietnam atrocities" (p. 80)]

Rosso, Stefano (see under Vietnam e ritorno)

Rothman, David J. (see under Rothman, Stanley)

Rothman, Lynn. "Location shots: Maneuvering with the military" Action 11/9 (Nov-Dec 1978), p. 13-15.

[The military acknowledges its image problems and is hoping Hollywood will help them soften some "harsh stereotypes. They are offering freely of their time, experience, and hardware in exchange for an open mind." But such support requires script approval. Cites about 15 war films produced to date in the 1970s. Most of those about the Vietnam War were refused cooperation, but the author found the officers in the Pentagon's west coast office more receptive than expected]

Rothman, Stanley, Rothman, David J., and Powers, Stephen. "Hollywood views the military" Society 28/1 (Nov./Dec. 1990), p. 79-84.

[Reprinted as Chap. 4 in Powers, Stephen, Rothman, David J., and Rothman, Stanley Hollywood's America : social and political themes in motion pictures Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press, 1996. (p. 81-100)]

[The trend for films to question the institutional legitimacy of the armed forces, which began in 1960s films, was not reversed in the 1980s despite a few favorable portrayals of the military like Rambo II and Top gun. Many Americans "have been disillusioned by their perceptions of historical events like the Vietnam War. We argue, however, that Hollywood producers, writers, and directors seem to have been disproportionately disillusioned, and this helps to explain the high level of cynicism that emerges from Hollywood's more recent military images, even when they are packaged as patriotism."]

Rouse, Sarah. "South Vietnam film legacy" Historical journal of film, radio and television 6/2 (1986), p. 211-22.

[Catalog of a film collection of 527 films donated to the Library of Congress by the South Vietnamese embassy in Washington after the fall of Saigon in 1975]

Rowe, John Carlos. "'Bringing it all back home': American recyclings of the Vietnam War" in The violence of representation : literature and the history of violence (edited by Nancy Armstrong) New York : Routledge, 1989. (p. 197-218)

[The Vietnam War is the most chronicled, documented, reported, filmed and taped in history, yet seemingly least subject to an understanding or consensus. Examines documentaries, the films First blood, Deliverance, and Southern comfort and the TV series Miami vice]

_______________. "From documentary to docudrama: Vietnam on television in the 1980s" Genre 21/4 (winter 1988), p. 451-77.

Reprinted in Historical memory and representations of the Vietnam War (edited by Walter L. Hixson) New York : Garland, 2000 (p. 299-326)

[After the fall of Saigon, there was a perception among publishers and producers that the American public was tired of the subject of Vietnam. "After 1975, the American public wanted a new story, which would allow us to comprehend our moral failure in Vietnam." (p. 451) The Vietnam War films of the first wave in the late 1970s mocked any effort to offer a 'realistic' account of the war. With a few exceptions, television avoided the subject of Vietnam after 1975. Then the series M*A*S*H restored the 'realism' of Vietnam. Television in the 1980s seized on the docudrama to project personalized, humanized and individualized stereotypes. Vietnam veterans were incorporated in conventionalized melodramas. Tour of duty and China Beach make representational claims to be docudrama (providing historical analysis and understanding) rather mere melodrama. Bibliography]

Roy, Andre. "La guerre n'est pas finie: Les annees Reagan" 24 images n.49 (summer 1990), p. 24-7.

[Vietnam War as turning point in US history, with the many films on the subject reflecting national unease]

Roy, Jean. "Memories of bitter-sweet years: France looks back at Indochina" Cinemaya no. 17-18 (autumn/winter 1992/1993), p. 4-9.

[Reviews L'amant, Dien Bien Phu, and Indochine. Translated from the French]

"Rozhdennaia v. bor'be: K 30-letiu v'etnamskoi kinematograffi" Iskusstvo kino (1983) n.4, p. 133-8.

[Survey of thirty years of the cinema in Vietnam. In Russian]

Rudnick, Paul. "Oh what a lovely war: Vietnam tonight" Premiere 1 (Jan 1988), p. 82.

[Satirical look at the second wave of Vietnam War films]

Russell, Jamie. Vietnam war movies Harpenden [England] : Pocket essentials, 2002.

[Written by a British freelance journalist. Offers an overview of the genre and its subgenres: the training film (Full metal jacket); the anti-war diatribe (Platoon); the Vietnam vet saga (First blood); and the surreal (Apocalypse now). Aims to show how these films operate as fantasy wish-fulfillment (re-writing the war in The Green Berets and Rambo II), an attempt to come to terms with the war as an event (The deer hunter), and simply as the opportunity for action (Hamburger Hill)]

Ryan, Desmond. "How Hollywood fought the war : while the battles raged, filmmakers dodged the action. Now that the war is history, thaey are anxious to tell its stories" Inquirer magazine (Jan 31, 1988), p. 18, 34.

[On the second wave of Vietnam War films. "When future historians seek to calibrate changing attitudes to this national tragedy, they will find them in our movies" though the variety of points of view evident in films then in production "reminds us there will probably never be a consensus about the war."]

_____________. "Video Vietnam: 'Born on the Fourth of July,' now out on tape, and other films have taken on the injurious war - and won hearts and praise" Philadelphia inquirer (Aug 9, 1990), p. 1E-2E.

[General overview of Vietnam War films with an extensive videography]

Ryan, Michael and Kellner, Douglas. Camera politica : the politics and ideology of contemporary Hollywood film Bloomington, Ind. : Indiana Univ. Press, 1988.

[Their chapter 1 "From counterculture to counterrevolution, 1967-1971" (p. 17-48) and chapter 7 "Vietnam and the new militarism" (p. 194-216) discuss political aspects of Vietnam War films]

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