Annotated Bibliography of Vietnam War Film Criticism

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Compiled by John K. McAskill, Systems Librarian, La Salle University


Annotated bibliography of Vietnam War film criticism

S

Salminen, Kari. "Vietnam: Kulttuurisen sodan viidakoissa" Filmihullu 3 (1990), p. 22-9.

[The changing nature of the Vietnam War in Hollywood movies thru the second wave. Bibliography. In Finnish]

Saltzman, Joe. "The lively arts: Apocalypse again" USA today 114 (Sep 1985), p. 47.

[Revenge fantasies of the second wave of Vietnam War films and Ronald Reagan's Central America policies]

Sanjek, David. "Apocalypse then : apocalyptic imagery and documentary reality in films of the 1960s" in Sights on the sixties (edited by Barbara L. Tischler) New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers Univ. Press, 1992. (p. 135-47)

[In the 1960s, the studio system was undergoing a financial and structural overhaul while American society was experiencing substantial social, political, racial and cultural transformation. Some 1960's films which incorporate a fictional narrative within factual environments both affirm and attack the social transformation of the period]

Sanoff, Alvin P. and Kyle, Cynthia. "Vietnam comes of age: From romanticism to realism - in films and textbooks" and "View from the trenches: 'Platoon' leads a new wave of movies" US news and world report 102 (Feb 2, 1987), p. 58-59.

[On the growing interest in the Vietnam War as a subject down to the high school level, the need for more research, and the second wave of Vietnam War films which the authors find more "middle-of-the-road" than previous films on the subject]

Sargeant, Jack. “Sticks and bones: Weapons and training” in Search & destroy : [an illustrated guide to Vietnam war movies] (edited by Jack Hunter) [London] : Creation Books, 2003, c2002. (Chap. 13, p. 221-232)

[Study of Vietnam combat film depictions of weapons. “Weapons and their use are portrayed with increasing degrees of symbolism and levels of metaphor not commonly seen within films … of other wars.” This complex representation of weapons is a result of the failure of the high-tech American military to overcome the low-tech Viet Cong and also reflects the crisis and dissolution experienced by many Americans in the post-war years. Bibliographical references]

Sarris, Andrew. "The screen at the end of the tunnel" Village voice 32/36 (Sep 8, 1987), p. 19, 26, 28-9.

[Reviews 23 films set in Vietnam in an inquiry into the current popularity of the war as a subject for films. Also discusses coverage of class distinctions, and the portrayal of the media and the left in recent pro-war Vietnam films]

Savran, David. "The sadomasochist in the closet: White masculinity and the culture of victimization" Differences 8/2 (summer 1996), p. 127+ [ca. 17 p.]

[White male backlash is linked to a new, white masculine fantasmatic that coalesced in the mid-1970s. This trend encourages the white male's simultaneous embrace and disavowal of the role of victim. Includes discussion of several Vietnam films as evidence, particularly the Rambo series and The Green Berets]

Sayre, Nora. "At war in the movies: Film teaches us - sometimes - to know our enemies or ourselves" Progressive 44/2 (Feb 1980), p. 51-4.

[First wave of Vietnam War films contrasted with films of World War II and Korea. Filmmakers of the 1970s are sensitive to the intense feelings of audiences on the subject of Vietnam]

* Scarrow, Simon. The Vietnam combat film : the construction of a sub-genre Thesis (M. Phil.)-University of East Anglia, School of English and American Studies, 1991. (216 leaves)

[Analyzes the creation and distinctive features of the "Vietnam combat film" sub-genre of the war film from The Green Berets to Platoon. There are certain common iconographic elements in these films including: the helicopter, the landscape, the hidden context, representations of the enemy, and representations of Americans. There are also common thematic elements including: the use of knowledge, rank and power; and the eradication of the feminine. Filmography and bibliography]

Schechter, Harold and Semerks, Jonna G. "Leatherstocking in 'Nam: Rambo, Platoon and the American frontier myth" Journal of popular culture 24/4 (spring 1991), p. 17-25.

Reprinted in Movies and politics : the dynamic relationship (edited by James Combs) New York : Garland, 1993. (p. 115-27)

[On the second wave of Vietnam War films with analysis focusing on Rambo: First blood part II and Platoon. The success of these films says less about the morality, political leanings or aesthetic judgement of the audience than it does about the "continuing hold over our communal imagination - of the frontier hero myth." Bibliographical references]

Schelbert, Corinne. "Welcome to Viet Nam, the movie, oder: Der Vietnamkrieg ist endlich bewaltigt" Cinema [Zurich] 34 (1988), p. 51-63.

[In the second wave of Vietnam War films, the American film industry has finally mastered the subject. In German]

Schepelern, Peter. "Amerika i tusmorket" [America in the twilight: The Vietnam War and its echo in American culture, especially in film] Kosmorama 32/178 (1986), p. 18-29.

[Discusses the impact of the Vietnam War on US society, its influence on art, literature and films, and describes chronologically US films and tv series about Vietnam. In Danish]

Scheurer, Timothy E. "Myth to madness : America, Vietnam, and popular culture" Journal of American culture 4 (summer 1981), p. 149-65.

[Since formal disengagement in 1975 artists and authors have been trying to make sense of our role in Vietnam. Describes novels, feature films (Apocalypse now, Coming home, Deer hunter, Go tell the Spartans, and Who'll stop the rain) and a TV movie (Friendly fire) of the late 1970s which are representative of this effort]

Schoenecke, Mike. "Images of NCO's in war film" in Beyond the stars : stock characters in American popular film Bowling Green, Ohio : Bowling Green State Univ. Popular Press, c1990. (v. 1, p. 146-55)

[The NCO provides filmmakers with an archetypal structure that embodies fundamental and universal concerns of Americans. He serves as a symbol of hope, reinforcing the idea that virtue and ability bring tangible rewards. Makes references to Full metal jacket, Gardens of stone and Platoon. Bibliography and filmography]

Schwenk, Melinda. "The Vietnam veteran in four films released between 1969 and 1973" Unpublished paper - Annenberg School for Communication, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1995. (13 leaves) [in the Viet Nam Generation archives]

[Analyzes The big bounce, Clay pigeon, Glory boy (My old man's place), and Two people, films which were omitted from Vietnam War films (1994)]

Search and clear : critical responses to selected literature and films of the Vietnam War (edited by William J. Searle) Bowling Green, Ohio : Bowling Green State Univ. Popular Press, 1988.

[Relevant articles cited separately]

Search & destroy : [an illustrated guide to Vietnam war movies] (edited by Jack Hunter) [London] : Creation Books, 2003, c2002.

[Subtitle from cover. A collection of essays by British authors which discuss the major combat films of the war and selective ‘Viet vet’ films where the war experience is a decisive factor in the character’s behavior. Also includes a survey of documentaries about the war and some coverage of underground and porno films. The editor concludes his foreword: “All future war movies – and perhaps all future wars – will continue to be judged by the benchmark of Vietnam.” General chapters analyzed separately above. Bibliographical references and index]

Searle, William J. (see under Search and clear)

Seate, Mike. Two wheels on two reels : a history of biker movies North Conway, N.H. : Whitehorse Press, 2000.

[Includes analysis of 13 biker films with Vietnam War connections. Index]

Selig, Michael. "Genre, gender, and the discourse of war: The a/historical and Vietnam films" Screen 34/1 (spring 1993), p. 1-18.

[Discussion of films about US intervention in Vietnam with reference to historical misrepresentation, repression of the feminine, and representation of masculinity. Bibliographical references]

______________. "History and subjectivity: What we won't learn from the Hollywood-style Vietnam War film" in The Viet Nam Generation big book (edited by Dan Duffy and Kali Tal) Woodbridge, Conn. : Viet Nam Generation, 1994. (p. 236-40)

[At issue in the second wave of Vietnam War films is their historical authenticity: how they attempt to present themselves as authentic and how this authenticity is a product of subjecting history to Hollywood's narrative conventions. "The Hollywood Vietnam film represents national identity by a configuration of the melodramatic and the Oedipal…" thereby avoiding the political issues involved in military intervention. The films also contrive an image of an Asian 'Other' and offer no reasonable position from which to judge the Vietnamese struggle for self-determination. Bibliographical references]

Semerks, Jonna G. (see under Schechter, Harold)

Seesslen, Georg. "Von Stahlgewittern zur Dschungelkampfmaschine : Veranderungen des Krieges und des Kriegsfilms" in Kino und Krieg : von der Faszination eines todlichen Genres (Ernst Karpf, editor) (Arnoldshainer Filmgesprache ; Bd. 6) Frankfurt am Main : Gemeinshaftswerk der Evangelishen Publizistik, c1989. (p. 15-32)

[On the changing public perception of war and changes in war films with reference to several Vietnam War and veteran films. In German]

Sessums, Kevin. "New recruits" Andy Warhol's interview 17 (Jan 1987), p. 82-3.

[Second wave Vietnam War films include actors who were too young to have been concerned with the war]

Shain, Russell Earl. An analysis of motion pictures about war released by the American film industry, 1930-1970 New York : Arno, 1976.

[Originally presented as a Ph.D. thesis in 1971 at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In the light of the growing rejection of Cold War assumptions, the author analyzes a selection of feature war films from the preceding 40 years. He divides the films into three distinct periods and explores their social, political and economic influence on American life. The analysis includes A Yank in Vietnam and The Green Berets as well as seven other Vietnam War related films. Bibliography and filmography]

______________. [Smith, Julian. Looking away : Hollywood and Vietnam.] Journalism quarterly 52 (winter 1975), p. 783.

[Book review. "Except for an occasional assumption of media effect when no evidence existed and missing a couple of references on the Pentagon and Hollywood, Smith has produced a solid piece of scholarship… in a lively style"]

Sharbutt, Jay (see under Webb, James H., Jr.)

Sharpe, George. "Letters: Vietnam movies: Recollections of a combat medic" New York times 139 (Jun 17, 1990), sec. 2, p. 3.

[With Gabrielle Bernard's letter, a response to Thomas Bird's article]

Shaw, Robert G. Vietnam revisited : a study of the evolution of the Vietnam War combat film Thesis (M.A.)--Dartmouth College, 1992. (109 leaves)

[Study of the evolution of the Vietnam War film as a genre, finding three phases in its development: the immediate postwar era (1977-79) when several epics were produced; the early 1980s, when the POW/MIA rescue films became popular; and the late 1980s to the present, when a more realistic soldiers'-level view emerged. While filmic studies of the war's effects on American participants and institutions have become more sophisticated, topics like the politics behind the war, its effect on the Vietnamese, or the effect of the antiwar movement have not yet been considered adequately. Bibliography]

Sheehan, C. and Pietlock, S. "Use of film in world resistance" Amex-Canada 2/4 (Jun 1970), p. 26+

[How anti-Vietnam War activists and deserters are using film to spread their ideas]

* Sherry, Douglas Marshall. Vietnam veterans and American mass media : the politics of the image Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Maryland, 1995. (ii, 248 leaves)

[Interdisciplinary examination of the image of the Vietnam veteran as contested cultural and ideological terrain in recent America. Drawing on Gramscian theories of ideology and hegemony, as well as conceptualizations of semiotic appropriation and bricolage employed in cultural studies, the study explores the complex manner in which print media and Hollywood film function as the primary discursive arenas wherein public images of the returned Vietnam veteran are constructed, contested and transformed in the Vietnam and post-Vietnam eras. Specific attention is devoted to the veterans' antiwar movement of the 1970s, and the manner in which this antiwar image was selectively appropriated and reconstructed by Hollywood across three decades--from Billy Jack and Coming Home in the 1970s, Rambo and Born On the Fourth of July in the 1980s, to Forrest Gump in the wake of the Gulf War in the 1990s--with the ultimate implication being the assuaging of the ideological disruptions of the Vietnam era. Bibliography]

Shute, Jennifer P. "Film review: Framing Vietnam" Tikkun 4 (Mar-Apr 1989), p. 83-5.

Revised and reprinted as "Framing Vietnam" in Bulletin of concerned Asian scholars [Twentieth anniversary issue] 21/2-4 (Apr-Dec 1989), p. 144-46; and in Coming to terms (1991), p. 267-74.

[In the second wave of Vietnam War film, historical amnesia and Rambo-style revisionism recycle 'national trauma' as action-adventure for those too young to remember]

Silber, Irwin. "Revolting isn't revolution" Guardian [New York] 23/15 (Jan 9, 1971), p. 13.

[Chiefly a review of MGM's attempts to profit from "hip 'revolution' films" like Strawberry statement and Zabriske Point]

Silberman, Rob. "The art of war: Vietnam terminable and interminable" Afterimage 16 (Sep 1988), p. 10-13.

[Review essay on War and memory (1987 art/film exhibit) and Unwinding the Vietnam War - from war into peace]

Simons, Jan. "Het Vietnamslagveld in Hollywood" Skrien n.162 (Oct 1988), p. 56-9.

[Analysis of the differences and similarities of Vietnam War films. In Swedish]

Sinclair, Quentin (Quentin Bernard). The back-to-Vietnam films vs. bureaucracy and technology Thesis (M.A.)--Ohio State University, 1988. (80 p.)

[Bureaucracy and technology as depicted in the back-to-Vietnam sub-genre with particular emphasis on Rambo, First blood, part II]

Siskel, Gene. "Hollywood escalates Viet Nam war and the conflict is booming" Chicago tribune (Jun 3, 1979), Arts and fun, p. 3, 8.

["All of a sudden films about the Viet Nam War are the most honored and talked about subject in Hollywood; this from an industry that virtually ignored the war while it was being fought and lost. Lost. Somehow that concept doesn't seem to have any part in a Hollywood war movie …" which is perhaps why Hollywood ignored the war. The essay attempts to answer the most commonly asked questions about the first wave films: Why are we getting them all of a sudden? Does any one film tell the whole story? Are any of the films any good? Will any more such films be made? Are these films really about the Vietnam War?]

Slotkin, Richard. Gunfighter nation : the myth of the frontier in twentieth-century America New York : Atheneum, 1992. (chapters 14-17, p. 441-623)

[Analyzes the link between the American frontier heritage and the experience of Vietnam. Follows frontier myths in literature and film into American domestic and foreign affairs. Analysis of The Green Berets, The Magnificent seven, Rambo, and The Wild bunch and other western films which relate to Vietnam. Bibliography]

Small, Linda. "Grave goods and social identity at the Vietnam War Memorial" Studies in popular culture 16/2 (1994), p. 73-84.

[Study of the popular reconstruction of the social identity of a generation of Americans looking back at 1968. This reconstruction is based on mythical history and image. Identifies The Deer hunter, Platoon, Rambo and Full metal jacket and other films dealing with the frontier hero myth as contributing to the reconstruction. Bibliography]

Smith, Claude J., Jr. "Clean boys in bright uniforms: The rehabilitation of the U.S. military in films since 1978" Journal of popular film and television 11/4 (winter 1984), p. 144-51.

[The first wave of Vietnam War films in the late 1970s "were either critical of the military, especially the officer corps (typically depicted as incompetent, corrupt, and self-serving), or critical of our involvement in Vietnam, or they depicted anti-heroes as protagonists in ambiguous moral situations." Officer and a gentleman (1982) , however, "marks a full-fledged reversion to films of the 1940s… The wide audience acceptance of this film suggests an approbative change in attitude toward the military." The author then describes what caused the change: an American feeling of weakness and vacillation (which lead to the election of Reagan) and a desire for a value system to believe in which replaced the ennui and malaise following Vietnam. The age of the typical moviegoer (25) also makes the anti-military attitude of the Vietnam generation irrelevant. Bibliographical references]

Smith, Julian. "Between Vermont and violence: Film portraits of Vietnam veterans" Film quarterly 26 (summer 1973), p. 10-17.

[Analyzes some twenty films then extant with Vietnam veteran characters, compares them with films about World war II veterans, and finds: "…the majority of films about veterans of Vietnam present them as violent drifters, brutalized and threatening figures reflecting (if not created by) unconscious attitudes toward the war and the men who fought it."]

___________. "Look away, look away, look away, movie land" Journal of popular film 2/1 (1973), p. 29-46.

[Hollywood's avoidance of the war as a subject is hard to explain. Some explanations advanced by others include: Hollywood was not willing to commit to one side or the other; a large part of the audience was opposed to the war or just did not want to know about it; and saturation coverage by television diminished the audience. "Vietnam's disorienting effect on our society, the indeterminate nature of this war we can't seem to win or abandon, is reflected in our filmmakers' inability to find an appropriate format…" Bibliographical references]

___________. Looking away: Hollywood and Vietnam New York : Scribner's Sons, 1975.

[The first monograph published on Vietnam War films. Hollywood has avoided the Vietnam War as a subject because filmmakers have been unable to find an appropriate format to contain it. This war lacked the respect for action and moral justification of earlier wars, so not fitting the traditional war film genre, Vietnam Went underground as a subject. Bibliography and index]

[Reviews: Cunningham, Ann Marie; Shain, Russell E.; Westelaken, Gijs van de]

Smith, Lorrie (see under America rediscovered)

Sorfa, David. “Helicopters in the mist” in Search & destroy : [an illustrated guide to Vietnam war movies] (edited by Jack Hunter) [London] : Creation Books, 2003, c2002. (Chap. 14, p. 233-249)

[Explores the important role of helicopters in the iconography of Vietnam War films. The use of helicopters can make a film part of the “Vietnam War genre,” but they always remain outside the genre itself. Bibliographical references]

Spark, Alasdair. "The soldier at the heart of the war: The myth of the Green Beret in the popular culture of the Vietnam era" Journal of American studies 18/1 (1984), p. 29-48.

[The Green Beret is "the soldier most intimately associated with the Vietnam War in the public mind" (p. 29) and serves as a vehicle in film and literature to express the experience of Vietnam. Discusses the use of the Green Beret in several first wave films with detailed analysis of The deer hunter and Apocalypse now. Bibliographical references]

_____________. "Vietnam films and public opinion" [Letter] History today 38 (Jan 1988), p. 61.

[Criticism of Michael Paris' (1987) imprecise analysis of 'Vietnam films,' particularly with reference to the Green Berets]

Springer, Claudia. "Antiwar film as spectacle: Contradictions of the combat sequence" Genre 21/4 (winter 1988), p. 479-86.

[Argues "that dominant cinematic conventions for representing combat can produce exhilaration in the spectator even in antiwar films, and that ultimately combat sequences have to be understood contextually in relation to how the narrative surrounding them mediates the sheer spectacle of combat." Analyzes Platoon. Bibliographical references]

_______________. "Rebellious sons in Vietnam combat films: A response" Genre 21/4 (winter 1988), p. 517-22.

[Response to Susan Jeffords "Masculinity as excess…" (1988) which argues that the Vietnam combat films work toward stability in their representation of the paternal. Springer adds that these films also include a contradictory desire, an anti-authoritarian desire that indulges in instability before authority is restored. Refers to Platoon and the Rambo series. Bibliography]

Stanislawska, Olga. "Indociny w perspektywie spomnien" Kino no. 26 (Nov 1992), p. 32-3.

[Reviews L'amant, Indochine, and Dien Bien Phu. In Polish]

Stasio, Marilyn. "Vietnam on the boards" Penthouse 8 (Aug 1977), p. 36-8.

[Analysis of plays about the war, some of which were subsequently produced as television or theatrical films]

Stephens, Philip (see under Thompson, Lawrence)

Stevenson, John. "Recent Vietnam films" Enclitic 10/1 [n.19] (1988), p. 41-51.

[Recent Vietnam films seen as an endorsement of the military version of the war. Focuses on Gardens of stone, Platoon and Full metal jacket]

Stora, Benjamin. Imaginaires de guerre : Algerie, Viet-Nam, en France et aux Etats-Unis Paris : Editions La Decouverte, 1997.

[Study of the means by which the imagined versions of these wars are constructed in both dramatic and documentary films. Examines 50 American dramatic films on Vietnam as well as some 30 dramatic and documentary films from Vietnam. Bibliographical references. In French]

Stringer, Kenneth Thompson. A substitute for victory? : fictional portraits of the American soldier and combat in Vietnam Thesis (Ph.D.)--American University, 1984.

[Fictional portraits of combat in Vietnam are indispensable sources for understanding and explaining the moral experience of fighting in such a war. Examines representative novels and films that reflect various moral perceptions of and responses to the American military effort, focusing on how such works depict the war and the American soldier in combat. The cultural legacy of the Vietnam war is a diverse set of fictional images, radically different from the fictional response to past wars which may indicate a change in the popular perception of warfare and may serve as a substitute for victory on the battlefield. Bibliography]

Studlar, Gaylyn and Desser, David. "Never having to say you're sorry: Rambo's rewriting of the Vietnam War" Film quarterly 62/1 (fall 1988), p. 9-16.

Reprinted: in Bulletin of concerned Asian scholars [Twentieth anniversary issue] 21/2-4 (Apr-Dec 1989), p. 147-55; in From Hanoi to Hollywood (1990), p. 101-12; and in Coming to terms (1991), p. 275-88.

[Describes American cultural trauma and the need to create a myth because of ambivalent feelings about the Vietnam War]

Suid, Lawrence. The film industry and the Vietnam War Thesis (Ph.D.)--Case Western Reserve University, 1980. (vii, 288 leaves)

[For more than 70 years, the film industry has helped shape the perceptions the American people have had of war and the armed forces. Until the mid-1960s, Hollywood generally produced movies containing a positive image of the American military. The breakdown of the studio system resulting from the onslaught of television and the subsequent rise of young, independent producers not beholden to the traditional relationship between the film industry and the military led to the making of a series of movies that showed the armed forces in a new and less favorable light. Ultimately, however, the Vietnam War, not Dr. Strangelove, Fail Safe, or Seven Days in May caused the American people to rethink their perceptions of the United States military. Movies about Vietnam that went into release beginning in 1977 have portrayed the military and war in negative terms. For the most part, the officers commanded incompetently, the fighting men used drugs and killed innocent civilians, the war was a surrealistic nightmare rather than a patriotic adventure, and the men who returned home suffered physical and mental wounds that prevented them from assuming normal lives. Filmography and bibliography]

____________. "Hollywood and Vietnam: So you want to make a Vietnam war movie? And you want the Pentagon to help? Then make sure your script's politics are 'realistic and acceptible'" Film comment 15/5 (Sep/Oct 1979), p. 20-5.

[On the political vagaries of Pentagon support for Vietnam War films thru the first wave]

____________. "Hollywood and Vietnam" Journal of American culture 4/2 (1981), p. 136-48.

[On Hollywood's response to Vietnam thru the first wave of Vietnam War films. Americans turned against the war because it lacked moral and political justification, and because we were losing. With the exception of John Wayne's The Green Berets, Hollywood reflected this attitude. Mark Robson's 1973 Limbo "was the only other Hollywood feature film to explore any aspect of the American experience in Vietnam until 1977" (p. 137). In 1977 a number of films explored the POW experience. "With the release of Coming home in 1978, however, Hollywood finally indicated a willingness to deal directly with the ramifications of America's experiences in a losing war" (p. 139). Discusses The boys in Company C, Go tell the Spartans, The deer hunter, Hair, and Apocalypse now. Bibliographical references]

Summitt, Mary J. (see under Summitt, Paul M.)

Summitt, Paul M. and Summitt, Mary J. "Perspectives: Does Hollywood's 'Vietnam music' reflect the tastes of those who dodged the war more than those who fought it?" Vietnam 9/5 (February 1997), p. 58, 60.

[Analyzes music used in China Beach, Tour of Duty and 8 feature films with 263 songs. Comparing these songs with tape lists of Anne Kelsey from the libraries in Vietnam Where she served in 1969-1970, they found only an 11% overlap]

Sutherland, Dennis Alan. Splinters : American film heroes and the Vietnam War Thesis (M.A.)--Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1992. (vii, 74 leaves)

[Focuses on three Vietnam War films where veterans of the war worked in a direct creative capacity: Platoon, Hamburger Hill and 84 Charlie Mopic. Extends Bakhtin's interpretation of the heroic elements of epic and novel to the screenplay. Shows how the heroes of these films are ultimately forced to reject the ethic of their parent culture to embrace the ethic of the comitatus (circle of warriors) in the struggle of Truth against Death, only to realize that Death is the only Truth. The hero becomes a dissociated, discursive pariah "a cultural splinter, marginalized and disenfranchised" (p. vii). Bibliography]

Svendsen, John. "Welcome to Vietnam, the movie" American studies in Scandinavia [Norway] 21/2 (1989), p. 96-108.

[Review essay on Gilbert Adair's Hollywood's Vietnam 1989 reprint]

Swenson, Catherine Kitty Clayton. Vietnam : coming to terms through the mediums of art Honors thesis--University of Utah, 1987. (50 leaves)

[Primarily a discussion of literary representations with chapters on feature and documentary films. Bibliography]

Szamuely, George. "Hollywood goes to Vietnam" Commentary 85 (Jan 1988), p. 48-53.

[Second wave films depict American soldiers not as villains or heroes but as mindless victims unable to understand the political issues involved in their victimization]

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Tal, Kali. "War looking at film looking at war: Vietnam War novels" Jump cut 36 (May 1991), p. 19-24.

[Examines how motion picture mythology typified by the John Wayne model of heroism has affected understanding of the Vietnam War and how this influence is noted in Vietnam War novels. Bibliographical references]

Talbot, Stephen. "60s something" Mother Jones 16 (Mar/Apr 1991), p. 46-9, 69-70.

[An interview with Oliver Stone with references to several Vietnam War films]

Tasker, Yvonne. "Masculinity, politics and national identity" (chap. 5) in her Spectacular bodies : gender, genre, and the action cinema London ; New York : Routledge, 1993. (p. 91-109)

* Taylor, Mark. The Vietnam war in history, literature and film. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2003.

[Bibliographical references and index]

Tell me lies about Vietnam : cultural battles for the meaning of the war (edited by Alf Louvre and Jeffrey Walsh for E.V.A.C. Research Group) Milton Keynes [England] ; Philadelphia : Open University Press, 1989.

[More than a decade after the end of the Vietnam War, the war of interpretation and ideological appropriation goes on. "Vietnam is enduring trauma, opportunity for political image-making and good box-office all rolled into one" (p. vi). This collection is intended to draw attention to the extent to which dominant depictions of the war serve as "evasions, alibis, disavowals, distortion, and lies" and through critical evaluation of the major popular texts to endorse an oppositional stance. Relevant articles cited separately]

Thanh, Kim. "Vietnamese cinematography and the war theme" Historical journal of film, radio and television 8/1 (1988), p. 96-8.

[How the Vietnam War remains a theme in one third of the films made in Vietnam]

30 years of Vietnam's cinema art Ha Noi : The Vietnam Film Archives, 1983. (64 p.)

[Highlights of the first thirty years of official Vietnamese filmmaking, heavily illustrated, with filmographies and credits of Vietnamese dramatic and documentary films that have won national and international awards. In English]

Thomas, Kevin. "'Free fire zone' opens 'Vietnam Film Project'" Los Angeles times (Apr 1, 1989), Calendar, sec. V, p. 9.

[Previews five films in the series including: The abandoned field - free fire zone; When the tenth month comes; Brothers and relations; A quiet little town; and Fairy tales for 17-year-olds]

Thompson, Lawrence; Welch, Richard and Stephens, Philip. "A Vietnam filmography" Journal of popular film and television 9/1 (spring 1981), p. 61-7.

[Annotated list of 37 American films dealing with the war, as well as pre-1960 films on the country and some films which include Vietnam veteran characters]

Thomson, David. "The end of the American hero" Film comment (Jul/Aug 1981), p. 13-17.

[Discusses Zabriskie Point and Taxi driver in light of the classic American film ending which seeks vindication]

Thu, Nguyen (see Nguyen, Thu)

Tillman, Lynne. "The war in Vietnam on film" Elle 4 (Apr 1989), p. 94, 96.

[Reviews the Vietnamese films in the Vietnamese Film Festival which were shown at the Asia Society in New York in April and May 1989]

Toi, Lam (see Lam, Toi)

Tongeren, Phil van. "De voorgangers van John Rambo: De Veteranenziekte" Skoop 21/6-7 (Sep-Oct 1985), p. 48-9.

[Discusses the depiction of Vietnam veterans in The deerhunter, Comimg home (Jon Voight), and Rolling thunder (William Devane). In Dutch]

Tournes, Andree (see under Delmas, Ginette)

Tra, Giang (see under Wikarska, Carol)

Tracey, Grant. Filmography of American history Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2002.

[Explores the relationship between American history and film, focusing on those which retell history or reinscribe the values of the present on the past. Excludes biographical films ("History isn't shaped by great men…" p. ix) and concentrates instead on how popular films reflect the lives of ordinary people. Chapters are organized around landmark events in U.S. history beginning with the Civil War. There are 24 Vietnam War related films among the 210 discussed. Filmographies, bibliographies and indexes]

Tran, Dac. "Vietnamese feature film in renovation" FilmVietnam 1 (1989), p. 6-8.

Tran, John. "Vietnamese cultural production during the American war" in The Vietnam era (p. 199-211)

[The North Vietnamese government used centuries-old Vietnamese cultural resistance to foreign domination to build support for political and military resistance. North Vietnam's wartime media and cultural concerns were extensive. They produced 770 newsreel and documentary films and 36 feature films between 1965-75. Discusses the documentaries Art and youth and Nixon and the hornet's nest as examples of wartime film production. Bibliographical references]

Tran, Tini. "Vietnam's dilemma: Global interest grows as domestic audience shrinks" Associated Press [Lexis-Nexis] (Feb 7, 2000), BC cycle.

[Reviews the decline of the film industry in Vietnam as foreign films have taken the domestic audience and local filmmakers can no longer rely on government support]

Traube, Elizabeth G. "Redeeming images: The wild man comes home" Persistence of vision n.3-4 (summer 1986), p. 71-94.

Reprinted in her Dreaming identities : class, gender, and generation in 1980s Hollywood movies Boulder : Westview Press, 1992. (p. 39-66)

[Examines Uncommon valor, Rambo, and Missing in action as films which substitute fantasy for historical fact. Bibliographical references]

Travers, Peter. "People picks & pans: Video" People weekly 23 (Jun 24, 1985), p. 10.

[Survey of Vietnam War films available on video on the 10th anniversary of the end of the war]

Trinh, Mai Diem. The Vietnam Film Archives : 10th anniversary of the founding (1979-1989) [Ha Noi : The Archives, 1989?]

Trudeau, G. B. (Garry B.) "Showtime in the tunnelplex" Time 148 (Jul 15, 1996), p. 73.

[Describes the use of motion pictures as a Viet Cong morale booster in the Cu Chi tunnel complex]

Trullols, Fernando. "Vietnam en el cine: Quatro visiones de un mismo inferno" Film-historia 6/1 (1996), p. 17-36.

[Discusses The deer hunter, Apocalypse now, Platoon and Full metal jacket. Bibliographical references. In Spanish]

Trung Son. Cau chuyen lam phim ve Bac Ho Hanoi : Van Hoa, 1983.

[Film production in Vietnam and films about Ho Chi Minh in particular. In Vietnamese]

Truong, Chinh (see under Film u. Fernsehen in Vietnam, 1920- 1974)

Truong, Toan. "Hollywood's Vietnam, not mine" New York times 139 (Feb 19, 1990), p. A17.

[A Vietnamese American who grew up during the war and came to the United States in 1975 describes his reaction to Vietnam War films. "These movies, although powerful and moving, are vehicles for men like Ron Kovic… and Oliver Stone… to atone for their past misdeeds"]

Reprinted in the Miami herald (Feb 20, 1990), p. 15A; Star tribune [Minneapolis] (Feb 23, 1990), p. 15A.

Tsao, Leonardo Garcia (see Garcia Tsao, Leonardo)

Tuchman, Mitchell A. "Celluloid Vietnam" New republic 172/22 (May 31, 1975), p. 28-30.

[Analysis of American dramatic and documentary films about Indochina and the Vietnam War starting with Saigon (1948) and continuing through the fall of Saigon in 1975. "Vietnam meant hell and strange bedfellows to American date-nighters for 20 years… In 1965 Hollywood withdrew from Vietnam" and independent documentaries prevailed until Hollywood annexed the independent esthetic]

__________________. Structure of cinematic thought : American political films 1968-1971 Thesis (Ph.D.)--Yale University, 1973.

[In the years 1968-1971 commercial and independent American filmmakers turned their attention to temporal issues and social and political life. Selects 103 dramatic and documentary films of the period (41 with Vietnam War connections) for analysis. The camera serves as an extension of human perception and the author hypothesizes that films of historical events and political attitudes are homologous with the perceptual frames of reference of the filmmakers. The viewer may learn what the filmmaker has discovered of the 'deeper' significance of historical events. Filmography and bibliography]

Tucker, Ken. "Vietnam War as show biz" Philadelphia inquirer (Jan 8, 1989), p. L1.

[The second season reappearances of the television series China Beach and Tour of duty emphasize how the Vietnam War has infiltrated popular culture, but the shows ask no serious questions about the subject]

Turan, Kenneth. "Vietnam and culture; Lessons and legacies / 25 years after Vietnam; The horror, the madness, the movies" Los Angeles times (Apr 16, 2000), Calendar, p. 7.

[Selects and discusses six historically significant and/or dramatically successful films about the war including: Apocalypse now, Born on the Fourth of July, Coming home, The Deer hunter, The Green Berets, and Platoon]

Turner, Fred. Echoes of combat : the Vietnam War in American memory New York : Anchor Books, 1996.

[Makes numerous references to films and has a six page filmography which includes the Star wars and Robocop film series]

Turner, Jenny. "Nambuster" City limits n.439 (Mar 1-8, 1990), p. 18-19.

[A review of Born on the Fourth of July with some reference to other Vietnam War films]

Turner, Richard. "Worst years of our lives: you lost the war, now see the movie" New times (Mar 20, 1978), p. 54-64.

[On the first wave of Vietnam War films: "…one of the most massive explosions of single-theme gambling in the history of Hollywood - Vietnam movies." (p. 55)]

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U

Ulstein, Stefan. "Arts: Missing from action" Christianity today 31/14 (Oct 2, 1987), p. 70, 72.

[On Vietnam War films through the second wave. "It remains to be seen whether the movie war can address America's failure to form a rationale for the war and communicate that rationale to the men asked to fight it…"]

"La USIS en Vietnam: Entrevista con un ex-oficial de cine del gobierno de los Estados Unidos" Cine cubano n.86-88 (1974), p. 109-32.

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