Multiculturalism & Curriculum Development



Adams,M. (1992). Promoting Diversity in College Classrooms: Innovative Reposes for the Curriculum, Faculty, and Institutions. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. n52. Massachusetts:

This journal presents a collection of essays that offer new perspectives on teaching practice; gives descriptive and narrative accounts of curricular and teaching innovations; and discusses a range of shared learnings obtained from public university , community college and private college multicultural change processes.(IL).


Benns-Suter,R. (1993). The Utilization of Simulations in Multicultural Education. Pennsylvania:

It is critical that colleges and universities play a leading role in preparing students to function effectively in the more pluralistic society that is developing. This task can be accomplished by updating curriculum to be more responsive to diversity issues. To enhance student understanding, simulations were introduced to encourage students to examine their own perspectives. The use of simulations was found to be an excellent technique to stimulate dialogue and thinking about cultural differences and multiculturalism.(IL).


Bolin, B. (1994). Encountering the opposition: Defending pluralistic pedagogies in a healthy atmosphere of conflict. Texas:

The many movements to a multicultural approach to education have met with resistance from various quarters. A predominant opposing view is that tampering with status quo is tantamount to inviting educational disaster across the nation. When education becomes more accessible, the argument implies, it is letting people down. Two recent newspaper articles illustrate the fallacies in this line of attack.(IL).


Bowser,B.P. et al.(1995). Toward the Multicultural University. Westport,CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.

This book is about the growing need for a more inclusive curriculum and university. The debate about multicultural education is moved from an ideological debate to the realm of the practical in these selections. The first part of the book outlines the demographic and historic realities that make multiculturalism imperative. The second part gives examples of how selective aspects of North American cultures could be central to curriculum and instruction reform. The final selection gives practical suggestions and proposals for improving teaching, administration, and student outcomes.(IL).


Carpenter, K.D.(1994). Achieving a True Multicultural Focus in Today's Curriculum. NASSP Bulletin.v78.62-67.

This article addresses academic multiculturalism as an emerging educational trend, which is a one-dimensional approach that adds a list of admirable persons of color to the existing curriculum. It also states the political multiculturalism opens the curriculum to analysis and reconstruction of historical power struggles, including the social conditions and inequitable power relations behind historical events. And also that principals can help the United States develop the multicultural scholars it desperately needs.(RL).


Collins,C.B.& Gillespie,R.R. (1992). Multiculturalism, the New Name for Apartheid; a Study of School Curricula in the New South Africa. Journal of Intercultural Studies. v13n1 p55-66.

Contends that recent changes in the South African school curriculum are intended to preserve racial separateness rather than bring about an integrated society. Distinguishes between the concepts of "own" culture versus "common "culture" in examining multiculturalism in South Africa. Provides a set of recommendations for curriculum development that would lead to a genuine multicultural society.(IL).


Cortes,C.E. (1991). Pluribus & Unum: the Quest for Community Amid Diversity. Change. v23n5 p8-14. Michigan

Multiculturalism is the best approach to helping higher education in the United States make the most of recent demographic changes. Multicultural curriculum reform ids the cornerstone to successful multicultural education. Isolationism by discipline, interest, or ethnic group, when temporary, is not intrinsically wrong but should be balanced with cultural integration.(RL).


Diaz,C. (1992). Mutlicultural Education for the 21st Century. NEA School Restructuring Series. District of Columbia:

This book presents a selection of readings that address multiculturalism and school restructuring as a reference for schools working to enrich their school-improvement agendas. The readings treat many areas within curriculum and student achievement.


Fitzgerald, A.D. (1995). Multiculturalism and the Core Curricula. New York:

Both the core curriculum and multiculturalism are highly contested issues in education today. For this discussion, a relatively broad definition of core curriculum is used, ranging from core programs that require students to take one mandated course or series of them to generalized distribution requirements more commonly put into practice as a core curriculum. Advocates of new scholarship have had two goals. One has been to establish new courses devoted to the primary concerns of feminist and multicultural scholarship, and the other has been concerned with transforming existing mainstream courses. Three paradigms have generally been adopted to bring about a multicultural core educational experience: (1) change in textbooks and disciplinary-based change; (2) a diversity requirement in the core curriculum; and (3) reconstructing Western civilizations through a mandated sequence of courses. The tensions of developing multicultural core curricula require a real commitment to change and honest debate about the political issues underlying innovations such as multiculturalism.(IL).


Fuss-Reineck,M. (1994). Eating Iguana: A Qualitative Analysis of Faculty Expectations and Assessments of a Mexican Sojourn. Minnesota:

As a part of a thrust to increase multiculturalism in the curriculum, Concordia-St. Paul faculty applied for summer sojourn grants, provided by the Bush Foundation. The rationale for the sojourn was that "change in faculty will affect change in the curriculum and in students" (Wentzel 1990). The faculty members who participated in the Mexican sojourn were interviewed twice: (1) at predeparture, and (2) at post sojourn. The predeparture questionnaire probed participants' intercultural definitions and applications, reasons for participating, expected personal, family and professional impacts, expectations and concerns for the sojourn itself and for Mexican culture, assessments of the meaning of intercultural effectiveness, important intercultural communication skills, and awareness of change. The follow-up questionnaire asked for intercultural definitions, goal accomplishment, personal ,family, and professional impacts, descriptions of experiences and Mexican culture, evaluations of the effectiveness of intercultural encounters, factors that contributed to learning, and recommendations for future sojourn experiences. (IL)


Goodstien, L. (1994).Achieving a multicultural curriculum: Conceptual, pedagogical, and structural issues.

Reviews two dominant mechanisms for increasing multiculturalism within the undergraduate curriculum; philosophical differences among those advocates of multicultural reform who perceive diversity as a critical perspective and those who perceive diversity as a variety; and four structural constraints likely to affect diversity efforts: fiscal constraints, organizational resistance, political opposition, and coalition building.(IL).


Gordon, E.W. & Bhattacharyya,M. (1992). Human Diversity, Cultural Hegemony, and the Integrity of the Academic Cannon. Journal of Negro education. v61n3. 405-18.(RL). Michigan:

Examines questions arising from concern for Afrocentric and multicultural education, including the nature of diversity and the relationships among cultural hegemony, cultural diversity, and cultural pluralism. Changing conceptions of intelligence, knowledge and education are considered in relation to the treatment of cultural and ethnic identities and multicultural education.(IL).


Harris, M.D. (1992). Africentrism and Curriculum: Concepts, Issues and Prospects. Journal of Negro Education. v61n3 p301-16. Michigan:

Discusses background issues and defines relavent terminology related to Africentrism. Curriculum issues surrounding innovative approaches to insuring African and African-American content into the public school systems are discussed. The diverse multicultural society in the united states must represent the histories and contributions of minority groups adequately.(IL).


Hu-DeHart,E. (1995). Ethnic Studies in U.S. Higher Education: History, Development, and Goals. Colorado:

Institutions of Higher learning in learning in the United States have hastened to create ethnic studies programs, perhaps as a sort of "fire insurance" against student activism and protests. Certainly the move toward ethnic studies has roots in the student activism of the 1960's. Such studies are particularly prominent in large public institutions, which are susceptible to public pressure. the variety of educational reforms that are gathered under the umbrella of multiculturalism includes the integration of ethnic studies into the curriculum. It also should mean that all students , and not just those of color, should be exposed to the histories and culture of Americans of non-European descent. Ethnic studies is a field in a state of flux and transition with no uniformity among any of the 700 or more mostly ethnic-specific programs and departments across the nation. The current controversy over political correctness is having a backlash effect against some ethnic studies endeavors. Most challenges to the continuation and enhancement of ethnic studies programs arise from these debates.(RL).


Hudson, J.B. (1994). Democracy, Diversity, and Multiculturalism in American Higher Education: Issues, Barriers, and Strategies for Change. Western Journal of Black Studies v8n4. 222-26.

Examines Multiculturalism and interculturalism, the premises underlying them and their objective and historical bases in order to gain insight with respect to the contemporary meaning of the issues and visions they create and the shape of possible solutions related to curricular reform in American higher education. Structural and cultural barriers are examined , and possible solutions are offered.(RL).


Hunt, J.A. et al. (1992). Monoculturalism to Multiculturalism: Lessons from Three Public Universities. New Directions for Teaching and Learning.n52 p101-14. Michigan:

Comparison of the experiences of three public universities in the northeast and midwest in changing from monocultural to multicultural campuses suggests intrinsic barriers to change and common elements in organizational and curricular development. Lessons were learned for organizational administration and governance, college environment, and faculty development. (IL).


Levine,A. & Cureton,J. (1992). The Quiet revolution: Eleven Facts about Multiculturalism and the Curriculum. Change.v24n1 p24-29. Michigan:

This article summarizes conclusions from a survey of the multicultural curriculum practices of 196 U.S. colleges and universities. Among findings are that 34 % have a multicultural general education requirement, 54% have introduced multiculturalism into the course offerings, and most institutions are seeking to increase faculty multiculturalism.(RL).


Lutzker,M. (1995). Multiculturalism in the College Curriculum: A Handbook of Strategies and Resources for Faculty. The Greenwood Educators' Reference Collection. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press

This book is a guide to incorporating multiculturalism in college curricula and offers practical pointers and strategies as well as a collection of useful references. It contains specific, practical ideas designed to be useful to instructors of all disciplines. It also examines objectives and priorities, the structuring of syllabi and the use of appropriate language. It enumerates and discusses specific classroom strategies. and addresses the selection of topics for diversity related student projects and the methods of structuring those projects. It also describes several specific formats for reporting student -research, reading, and thinking; and considers possible problems which might arise when introducing this material. It Also includes information resources and research strategies that can assist the instructor in broadening the curriculum and in devising student projects.(RL).


Myers, E.R. (1994). Multiculturalism as a Basis for Empowerment ans Social Reform. District of Columbia:

During the past 2 decades, population changes have resulted in a multiethnic society in the U.S. with cultural diversity beyond the imaginings of the country's founders, whose initial view of the concept of Americanism, and consequently multiculturalism, included racism and slavery. Multiculturalism can not disunite America, because the country has never been united ethnically and cross-culturally. Multiculturalism as a social movement in America has the revolutionary potential of the Civil Rights Movement. the National Association for Multicultural Education(NAME) is providing courageous leadership in the effort to include multicultural content in all educational curricula in the nation's education systems.(IL).


Norfleet,L.& Wilcox,B.L. (1992). Internationalizing College Campuses. Community,Technical,and Junior College Journal. v63n1 p24-28. Michigan:

Describes ways community colleges have used to create culturally diverse campuses, including recruiting foreign students, creating global awareness, internationalizing the curriculum, providing study abroad and faculty exchange opportunities, and involving the community. Highlights the importance of institutional commitment to the new focus on multiculturalism. (IL).


Obiakor,F.E. (1994). Multiculturalism in the university curriculum: Infusion for what? Kansas:

This paper addresses the question of how to infuse multiculturalism and diversity into American higher education curriculum. It argues that multiculturalism is not a fad, but a dynamic framework that values the complex diversity of America's pluralistic society and institutes innovative avenues for shared human interactions. The infusion of multiculturalism into higher education enhances the quality of education and exposes students to previously ignored or under-represented ideas and points of view. To achieve a multicultural curriculum, educators need to address: (1) test usage and interpretation for recruitment, retention and graduation;(2) responses to affirmative action regulations;(3) culturally-sensitive instruction;(4) community involvement; and (5) paradigm shift in society and higher education.(RL).


Princes, C.D.W., Igbineweka, A.O. (1995). The Social and Political Dimensions of Achieving a Multicultural College Curriculum. Pennsylvania:

This paper examines research on multicultural education and multiculturalism and two forces, prevailing social and political dimensions, that impinge on the full implementation of multiculturalism in higher education curriculum. Multicultural education is defined as one that incorporates the concepts of cross-cultural understanding and reflects an underlying principle that different groups learn and benefit from each other. Many educators, however, are inadequately prepared to incorporate multiculturalism, and because curriculum affects all students, faculty, and departments on campus, discussions surrounding multiculturalizing the college curriculum generally become a matter of political discourse rather than an act of intellectual and educational integrity. Various approaches to incorporating multiculturalism into the curriculum are explored, and 15 social conditions and problems that hinder the development of multiculturalism, including racism, are delineated. These social problems, it is argued, must be addressed in the context of political problems such as the lack of strong legislative backing, how and when subject matter is determined, teaching from a politically correct position, better training for faculty especially with exposure to different ethnic groups, concepts for ethnic and women's studies, academic power structures and the traditional curriculum, and the legitimacy of diversity- or culturally - related courses. Finally the paper lists a number of strategies organizations can follow to avoid pitfalls in multiculturalizing curriculum, as well as suggestions for individuals on reshaping their approaches to multiculturalism.(RL).


Rhoads,R.A.(1995). Multiculturalism and Border Knowledge in Higher Education. Pennsylvania:

Although community colleges serve a culturally diverse student population, they, along with other institutions of higher education, have been slow to respond to that diversity. The implementation of a multicultural curriculum threatens the canonical knowledge upon which higher education is positioned. The canon elevates certain aspects of a society's culture over others and suppresses "border knowledge", or knowledge that resides outside of the cultural mainstream. Since border knowledge is most often embraced by those situated on society's margins of race, class, gender, age, and sexual orientation, multiculturalism can offer a response to the canon. Mainstream multiculturalism situates cultural diversity as subject matter to be learned and not as ways of thinking and doing that fundamentally challenge Euro-centrically-conceived institutions. Critical multiculturalism, however, combines the conditions of cultural diversity with the vision of a critical education practice drawing from feminism, post-modernism, and critical theory. Critical multiculturalism seeks to transform institutions from monolithic centers of power to democratic constellations in which organizational structures reflect diverse cultures and perspectives. For community colleges, embracing multiple forms of cultural knowledge, or border knowledge is an important facet of meeting the challenge of serving a culturally student clientele.(CL).


Smith,P. (1994). Multicultural issues: Dilemma and hopes.

Asserts that multiculturalism is an inevitable feature of future curriculum development. Describes four approaches to multiculturalism: (1) attack multiculturalism;(2) escape multiculturalism;(3) transformative multiculturalism; and (4) repair multiculturalism. (RL).


Stoll, M.P. (1995). What is Multicultural Education? Community College Journal v65n3. 11-15.

Provides a discussion of the debate surrounding multicultural education. Indicates that multiculturalism is an attempt to develop curricula, instructional materials, and pedagogy allowing individuals to acquire a perspective beyond their unique cultural, ethnic, gender and racial perspective. Suggests that community colleges have fallen behind universities in including multicultural content in curricula. (RL).


Ward,K.A. et al. (1992). Multiculturalism and innovation in Academe: Recent Approaches. Pennsylvania:

This paper examines how institutions of higher education can achieve more diverse academic communities. It is argued that modernist interpretations of organizations limit academic change designed to encourage the voiceless members of society through an overemphasis on outcomes and efficiency. Provides a practical examination of academic innovation and change, focusing on efforts to create a multicultural academy.(IL).


White,A.M.(994). A course in the psychology of oppression: A different approach to teaching about diversity.

Presents a description of an undergraduate course, "Psychology of Oppression." Maintains that the course teaches an understanding of the factors that undermine the appreciation of multiculturalism and other forms of societal diversity.(IL).


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