& Curriculum Development
KEY CL=CONNELLY LIBRARY
MULTICULTURALISM & CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
This journal presents a collection of essays that offer
new perspectives on teaching practice; gives descriptive and narrative
accounts of curricular and teaching innovations; and discusses
a range of shared learnings obtained from public university ,
community college and private college multicultural change processes.(IL).
Adams,M. (1992). Promoting Diversity in College Classrooms:
Innovative Reposes for the Curriculum, Faculty, and Institutions.
New Directions for Teaching and Learning. n52. Massachusetts:
Benns-Suter,R. (1993). The Utilization of Simulations
in Multicultural Education. Pennsylvania:
It is critical that colleges and universities play a
leading role in preparing students to function effectively in
the more pluralistic society that is developing. This task can
be accomplished by updating curriculum to be more responsive to
diversity issues. To enhance student understanding, simulations
were introduced to encourage students to examine their own perspectives.
The use of simulations was found to be an excellent technique
to stimulate dialogue and thinking about cultural differences
Bolin, B. (1994). Encountering the opposition: Defending
pluralistic pedagogies in a healthy atmosphere of conflict.
The many movements to a multicultural approach to education
have met with resistance from various quarters. A predominant
opposing view is that tampering with status quo is tantamount
to inviting educational disaster across the nation. When education
becomes more accessible, the argument implies, it is letting people
down. Two recent newspaper articles illustrate the fallacies in
this line of attack.(IL).
Bowser,B.P. et al.(1995). Toward the Multicultural
University. Westport,CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
This book is about the growing need for a more inclusive
curriculum and university. The debate about multicultural education
is moved from an ideological debate to the realm of the practical
in these selections. The first part of the book outlines the demographic
and historic realities that make multiculturalism imperative.
The second part gives examples of how selective aspects of North
American cultures could be central to curriculum and instruction
reform. The final selection gives practical suggestions and proposals
for improving teaching, administration, and student outcomes.(IL).
Carpenter, K.D.(1994). Achieving a True Multicultural
Focus in Today's Curriculum. NASSP Bulletin.v78.62-67.
This article addresses academic multiculturalism as
an emerging educational trend, which is a one-dimensional approach
that adds a list of admirable persons of color to the existing
curriculum. It also states the political multiculturalism opens
the curriculum to analysis and reconstruction of historical power
struggles, including the social conditions and inequitable power
relations behind historical events. And also that principals can
help the United States develop the multicultural scholars it desperately
Collins,C.B.& Gillespie,R.R. (1992). Multiculturalism,
the New Name for Apartheid; a Study of School Curricula in the
New South Africa. Journal of Intercultural Studies. v13n1
Contends that recent changes in the South African school
curriculum are intended to preserve racial separateness rather
than bring about an integrated society. Distinguishes between
the concepts of "own" culture versus "common "culture"
in examining multiculturalism in South Africa. Provides a set
of recommendations for curriculum development that would lead
to a genuine multicultural society.(IL).
Cortes,C.E. (1991). Pluribus & Unum: the Quest for Community
Amid Diversity. Change. v23n5 p8-14. Michigan
Multiculturalism is the best approach to helping higher
education in the United States make the most of recent demographic
changes. Multicultural curriculum reform ids the cornerstone to
successful multicultural education. Isolationism by discipline,
interest, or ethnic group, when temporary, is not intrinsically
wrong but should be balanced with cultural integration.(RL).
Diaz,C. (1992). Mutlicultural Education for the 21st
Century. NEA School Restructuring Series. District of Columbia:
This book presents a selection of readings that address
multiculturalism and school restructuring as a reference for schools
working to enrich their school-improvement agendas. The readings
treat many areas within curriculum and student achievement.
Fitzgerald, A.D. (1995). Multiculturalism and the
Core Curricula. New York:
Both the core curriculum and multiculturalism are highly
contested issues in education today. For this discussion, a relatively
broad definition of core curriculum is used, ranging from core
programs that require students to take one mandated course or
series of them to generalized distribution requirements more commonly
put into practice as a core curriculum. Advocates of new scholarship
have had two goals. One has been to establish new courses devoted
to the primary concerns of feminist and multicultural scholarship,
and the other has been concerned with transforming existing mainstream
courses. Three paradigms have generally been adopted to bring
about a multicultural core educational experience: (1) change
in textbooks and disciplinary-based change; (2) a diversity requirement
in the core curriculum; and (3) reconstructing Western civilizations
through a mandated sequence of courses. The tensions of developing
multicultural core curricula require a real commitment to change
and honest debate about the political issues underlying innovations
such as multiculturalism.(IL).
Fuss-Reineck,M. (1994). Eating Iguana: A Qualitative
Analysis of Faculty Expectations and Assessments of a Mexican
As a part of a thrust to increase multiculturalism in
the curriculum, Concordia-St. Paul faculty applied for summer
sojourn grants, provided by the Bush Foundation. The rationale
for the sojourn was that "change in faculty will affect change
in the curriculum and in students" (Wentzel 1990). The faculty
members who participated in the Mexican sojourn were interviewed
twice: (1) at predeparture, and (2) at post sojourn. The predeparture
questionnaire probed participants' intercultural definitions and
applications, reasons for participating, expected personal, family
and professional impacts, expectations and concerns for the sojourn
itself and for Mexican culture, assessments of the meaning of
intercultural effectiveness, important intercultural communication
skills, and awareness of change. The follow-up questionnaire asked
for intercultural definitions, goal accomplishment, personal ,family,
and professional impacts, descriptions of experiences and Mexican
culture, evaluations of the effectiveness of intercultural encounters,
factors that contributed to learning, and recommendations for
future sojourn experiences. (IL)
Goodstien, L. (1994).Achieving a multicultural curriculum:
Conceptual, pedagogical, and structural issues.
Reviews two dominant mechanisms for increasing multiculturalism
within the undergraduate curriculum; philosophical differences
among those advocates of multicultural reform who perceive diversity
as a critical perspective and those who perceive diversity as
a variety; and four structural constraints likely to affect diversity
efforts: fiscal constraints, organizational resistance, political
opposition, and coalition building.(IL).
Gordon, E.W. & Bhattacharyya,M. (1992). Human Diversity,
Cultural Hegemony, and the Integrity of the Academic Cannon. Journal
of Negro education. v61n3. 405-18.(RL). Michigan:
Examines questions arising from concern for Afrocentric
and multicultural education, including the nature of diversity
and the relationships among cultural hegemony, cultural diversity,
and cultural pluralism. Changing conceptions of intelligence,
knowledge and education are considered in relation to the treatment
of cultural and ethnic identities and multicultural education.(IL).
Harris, M.D. (1992). Africentrism and Curriculum: Concepts,
Issues and Prospects. Journal of Negro Education. v61n3
Discusses background issues and defines relavent terminology
related to Africentrism. Curriculum issues surrounding innovative
approaches to insuring African and African-American content into
the public school systems are discussed. The diverse multicultural
society in the united states must represent the histories and
contributions of minority groups adequately.(IL).
Hu-DeHart,E. (1995). Ethnic Studies in U.S. Higher
Education: History, Development, and Goals. Colorado:
Institutions of Higher learning in learning in the United
States have hastened to create ethnic studies programs, perhaps
as a sort of "fire insurance" against student activism
and protests. Certainly the move toward ethnic studies has roots
in the student activism of the 1960's. Such studies are particularly
prominent in large public institutions, which are susceptible
to public pressure. the variety of educational reforms that are
gathered under the umbrella of multiculturalism includes the integration
of ethnic studies into the curriculum. It also should mean that
all students , and not just those of color, should be exposed
to the histories and culture of Americans of non-European descent.
Ethnic studies is a field in a state of flux and transition with
no uniformity among any of the 700 or more mostly ethnic-specific
programs and departments across the nation. The current controversy
over political correctness is having a backlash effect against
some ethnic studies endeavors. Most challenges to the continuation
and enhancement of ethnic studies programs arise from these debates.(RL).
Hudson, J.B. (1994). Democracy, Diversity, and Multiculturalism
in American Higher Education: Issues, Barriers, and Strategies
for Change. Western Journal of Black Studies v8n4. 222-26.
Examines Multiculturalism and interculturalism, the
premises underlying them and their objective and historical bases
in order to gain insight with respect to the contemporary meaning
of the issues and visions they create and the shape of possible
solutions related to curricular reform in American higher education.
Structural and cultural barriers are examined , and possible solutions
Hunt, J.A. et al. (1992). Monoculturalism to Multiculturalism:
Lessons from Three Public Universities. New Directions for
Teaching and Learning.n52 p101-14. Michigan:
Comparison of the experiences of three public universities
in the northeast and midwest in changing from monocultural to
multicultural campuses suggests intrinsic barriers to change and
common elements in organizational and curricular development.
Lessons were learned for organizational administration and governance,
college environment, and faculty development. (IL).
Levine,A. & Cureton,J. (1992). The Quiet revolution:
Eleven Facts about Multiculturalism and the Curriculum. Change.v24n1
This article summarizes conclusions from a survey of
the multicultural curriculum practices of 196 U.S. colleges and
universities. Among findings are that 34 % have a multicultural
general education requirement, 54% have introduced multiculturalism
into the course offerings, and most institutions are seeking to
increase faculty multiculturalism.(RL).
Lutzker,M. (1995). Multiculturalism in the College
Curriculum: A Handbook of Strategies and Resources for Faculty.
The Greenwood Educators' Reference Collection. Westport, CT:
This book is a guide to incorporating multiculturalism
in college curricula and offers practical pointers and strategies
as well as a collection of useful references. It contains specific,
practical ideas designed to be useful to instructors of all disciplines.
It also examines objectives and priorities, the structuring of
syllabi and the use of appropriate language. It enumerates and
discusses specific classroom strategies. and addresses the selection
of topics for diversity related student projects and the methods
of structuring those projects. It also describes several specific
formats for reporting student -research, reading, and thinking;
and considers possible problems which might arise when introducing
this material. It Also includes information resources and research
strategies that can assist the instructor in broadening the curriculum
and in devising student projects.(RL).
Myers, E.R. (1994). Multiculturalism as a Basis for
Empowerment ans Social Reform. District of Columbia:
During the past 2 decades, population changes have resulted
in a multiethnic society in the U.S. with cultural diversity beyond
the imaginings of the country's founders, whose initial view of
the concept of Americanism, and consequently multiculturalism,
included racism and slavery. Multiculturalism can not disunite
America, because the country has never been united ethnically
and cross-culturally. Multiculturalism as a social movement in
America has the revolutionary potential of the Civil Rights Movement.
the National Association for Multicultural Education(NAME) is
providing courageous leadership in the effort to include multicultural
content in all educational curricula in the nation's education
Norfleet,L.& Wilcox,B.L. (1992). Internationalizing College
Campuses. Community,Technical,and Junior College Journal. v63n1
Describes ways community colleges have used to create
culturally diverse campuses, including recruiting foreign students,
creating global awareness, internationalizing the curriculum,
providing study abroad and faculty exchange opportunities, and
involving the community. Highlights the importance of institutional
commitment to the new focus on multiculturalism. (IL).
Obiakor,F.E. (1994). Multiculturalism in the university
curriculum: Infusion for what? Kansas:
This paper addresses the question of how to infuse multiculturalism
and diversity into American higher education curriculum. It argues
that multiculturalism is not a fad, but a dynamic framework that
values the complex diversity of America's pluralistic society
and institutes innovative avenues for shared human interactions.
The infusion of multiculturalism into higher education enhances
the quality of education and exposes students to previously ignored
or under-represented ideas and points of view. To achieve a multicultural
curriculum, educators need to address: (1) test usage and interpretation
for recruitment, retention and graduation;(2) responses to affirmative
action regulations;(3) culturally-sensitive instruction;(4) community
involvement; and (5) paradigm shift in society and higher education.(RL).
Princes, C.D.W., Igbineweka, A.O. (1995). The Social
and Political Dimensions of Achieving a Multicultural College
This paper examines research on multicultural education
and multiculturalism and two forces, prevailing social and political
dimensions, that impinge on the full implementation of multiculturalism
in higher education curriculum. Multicultural education is defined
as one that incorporates the concepts of cross-cultural understanding
and reflects an underlying principle that different groups learn
and benefit from each other. Many educators, however, are inadequately
prepared to incorporate multiculturalism, and because curriculum
affects all students, faculty, and departments on campus, discussions
surrounding multiculturalizing the college curriculum generally
become a matter of political discourse rather than an act of intellectual
and educational integrity. Various approaches to incorporating
multiculturalism into the curriculum are explored, and 15 social
conditions and problems that hinder the development of multiculturalism,
including racism, are delineated. These social problems, it is
argued, must be addressed in the context of political problems
such as the lack of strong legislative backing, how and when subject
matter is determined, teaching from a politically correct position,
better training for faculty especially with exposure to different
ethnic groups, concepts for ethnic and women's studies, academic
power structures and the traditional curriculum, and the legitimacy
of diversity- or culturally - related courses. Finally the paper
lists a number of strategies organizations can follow to avoid
pitfalls in multiculturalizing curriculum, as well as suggestions
for individuals on reshaping their approaches to multiculturalism.(RL).
Rhoads,R.A.(1995). Multiculturalism and Border Knowledge
in Higher Education. Pennsylvania:
Although community colleges serve a culturally diverse
student population, they, along with other institutions of higher
education, have been slow to respond to that diversity. The implementation
of a multicultural curriculum threatens the canonical knowledge
upon which higher education is positioned. The canon elevates
certain aspects of a society's culture over others and suppresses
"border knowledge", or knowledge that resides outside
of the cultural mainstream. Since border knowledge is most often
embraced by those situated on society's margins of race, class,
gender, age, and sexual orientation, multiculturalism can offer
a response to the canon. Mainstream multiculturalism situates
cultural diversity as subject matter to be learned and not as
ways of thinking and doing that fundamentally challenge Euro-centrically-conceived
institutions. Critical multiculturalism, however, combines the
conditions of cultural diversity with the vision of a critical
education practice drawing from feminism, post-modernism, and
critical theory. Critical multiculturalism seeks to transform
institutions from monolithic centers of power to democratic constellations
in which organizational structures reflect diverse cultures and
perspectives. For community colleges, embracing multiple forms
of cultural knowledge, or border knowledge is an important facet
of meeting the challenge of serving a culturally student clientele.(CL).
Smith,P. (1994). Multicultural issues: Dilemma and
Asserts that multiculturalism is an inevitable feature
of future curriculum development. Describes four approaches to
multiculturalism: (1) attack multiculturalism;(2) escape multiculturalism;(3)
transformative multiculturalism; and (4) repair multiculturalism.
Stoll, M.P. (1995). What is Multicultural Education?
Community College Journal v65n3. 11-15.
Provides a discussion of the debate surrounding multicultural
education. Indicates that multiculturalism is an attempt to develop
curricula, instructional materials, and pedagogy allowing individuals
to acquire a perspective beyond their unique cultural, ethnic,
gender and racial perspective. Suggests that community colleges
have fallen behind universities in including multicultural content
in curricula. (RL).
Ward,K.A. et al. (1992). Multiculturalism and innovation
in Academe: Recent Approaches. Pennsylvania:
This paper examines how institutions of higher education
can achieve more diverse academic communities. It is argued that
modernist interpretations of organizations limit academic change
designed to encourage the voiceless members of society through
an overemphasis on outcomes and efficiency. Provides a practical
examination of academic innovation and change, focusing on efforts
to create a multicultural academy.(IL).
White,A.M.(994). A course in the psychology of oppression:
A different approach to teaching about diversity.
Presents a description of an undergraduate course, "Psychology
of Oppression." Maintains that the course teaches an understanding
of the factors that undermine the appreciation of multiculturalism
and other forms of societal diversity.(IL).
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