Week 7 - Nationalisms

   

 

Text: Atlantic Charter (1941)
Map: World Colonies 1945
Map: Asian Independence Dates
Map: Dates of Middle East Independence
Map: African Independences
Map: Trends in African Independence

Song: "Yes, We Have No Bananas" (1922)
Image: United Fruit Company Stock Certificate
Recipes: Banana Scallops, and other (1931) very (1948) tasty (194x) ideas (1957)
Map: United Fruit Properties (1951) and Ports
Image: Banana Boats Big (1910) and Small (1907)
Images: Banana Work
Image: Anti-Imperialist League of the Americas
Image: Anti-UFCo (Honduras 1955)
Image: UFCo Ad

Constitutional Nationalists

What is Nationalism?
"Imagined Communities"
Goodbye League of Nations, hello United Nations
The UN and the problem of colonies
Does Nationalism have to be anti-colonial?

Guatemala: Nationalists vs. Corporations

The United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
-Consumers in the United States
-
UFCo, its dealings with its workers
-UFCo, its relationship to the government (1936: 99-yr lease)
-Dictator on shaky ground

The October Revolution and the Aftermath
Unrest in Guatemala City
-An elected president
Arévalo's term and early modest reforms (1945-50)
-No Internationalist Parties
-United Fruit resists changes
The Arbenz Government (1950-54)
-Fighting foreign dependence, challenging United Fruit
-Agrarian reform and the nationalization of United Fruit land
-Disputing the worth

Nationalism
Nation
Self-Determination
Independence
De-Colonization
United Nations

Imperialism
Bananas
United Fruit Company
("La Frutera") (Chiquita)
"Banana Republics"
Puerto Barrios
Railroad
Concessions

General Jorge Ubico (1931-44)
Great Depression
Vagrancy Law
Second World War
October Revolution
Suffrage
Juan Jose Arévalo
Coup d'etat
Latifundia
Jacobo Arbenz
1952 Agrarian Reform Law
Nationalization


 

 

 

Image: Meru at the UN

 

 

Images: Bibi Titi and Nyerere recruiting TANU

 

 

Image: TANU legislature victory (1958)

Image: Nyerere and Chiefs (1961)
Image: Uhuru

 

 

Image: Kenya Concentration Camp
Map: Dentention Camps
Image: Fingerprinting Corpse
Image: Homemade Kenyan Weapons
Image: Captives
Image: "Mau-Mau" Court

 

Uhuru: Tanganyika's Transition to Self-Government

The Colonial Situation (1940s-50s)
-Native Authorities and British overlords
-The Groundnut Scheme (and others)
-United Nations' racism

Dissatisfaction with Colonial Rule (1947-51)

-Striking workers and rebellious peasants
-The Meru case and the UN

Unified Resistance, a New Political Party (1954-58)
-TANU organizes, grows
-A peaceful strategy
-Obstacles and advantages in forging unity
-Who joined?

Political Institution Revised (1957-1961)
-A multi-racial legislature
-TANU party victories
-Independence
-The difficult road of the future

The Emergency: Kenya's Anti-Colonial Revolt

Kenya as "White Man's Country"
Why armed?
White Highlands (30k) (5 mio Africans)
--Kikuyu (Embu & Meru) Alienation
--Political/Legislative Demands (1951)
Revolt (1950-59)
--"State of Emergency" (1952-59)
--Terror
--Counter-Insurgency
--Detainment, Torture, Trials, and Executions
--Dead: 32 white civilians/2000 loyalists and soldiers (63 white):: 11,000-70,000-300,000/1000+ hanged
--Failed Inquiries/Destroyed Evidence
Aftermath (1960-63)
--"Winds of Change"
--Bloody Algeria
--Expanded political participation
--Kikuyu-Luo Alliance
--Independence

 

Mandate (Trust Territory)

Chiefs

King's African Rifles
United Nations

WaPare
WaShambaa
WaMeru
KiSwahli

Constitutionalist
Julius Nyerere
Bibi Titi Mohamed
Oscar Kambona
TANU

 

 

Uhuru

White Highlands
Pass Laws/Kipande
Coffee
State of Emergency
Operation Jock Scott (1952)
"Mau Mau"/Land and Freedom Party/
Ithaka na Wiyathi
Operation Anvil (1954)
Villagization/Concentration Camps
Jomo Kenyatta
KANU
Oginga Odinga
Tom Mboya
Constitutionalists

Map: French Conquests in Indochina

Map:
Indochinese Conflict 1946-54

Map: Indochinese Conflict 1946-67

 

Image: Ho Chi Minh

NLF: Armed Nationalists in Indochina

Vietnam
-Relationship to China
-The name of a nation
-Relationship to France

Conditions in Vietnam as a Colony (1880s-1945)
-Ripe for a revolution
-Land inequality, taxes, and forced labor
-Japanese administration (1940-45)
-Widespread famine, 2 million starve

Why a Nationalist Format? (1910s-1930s)
-Language and cultural differences in Indochina
-Colonial educational systems, national educations

Two Strands of Nationalism (1890s-1930s)
-Monarchist
-Progressive
-The influence of Communism (What is it?)
-Ho Chi Minh's plan
-Peasant protests (1930)

Armed Anti-Colonialism (1940-1954)
-Early successes by the Viet Minh
-The French cling desperately (an "autonomous" south)
-Guerrilla warfare
-Dien Bien Phu falls (1954)

Two new countries

 

Indochina

Confucian
Nam Viet
Annam
Dai Nam

Corvee Labor

Ho Chi Minh

Mission Civilisatrice

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

 

Communism
Nghe-An and Ha-Tinh

Buddhism

Pacification

 

Bao Dai

Ngo Dinh Diem


 


Image: Jungle Bomber
Image: Propaganda Leaflets

Image: Malayan Emergency Brit Propaganda

Image: Malaysia "Camp"
Image: Burning out "Terrorists"

Substantial Minorities: Armed Nationalists in Malaya (1948-60)

Colonial Era (1818-1957)
British Claims and Singapore
Chinese (and Indian) Immigration
--Resources
World War Two (Japanese)
--Communist Resistance/British Allies
Federated Sultanates

The Emergency
Peaceful Communists (1945-48)
Chinese Exclusion From Power
Insurgency and Success (1948-51)
Counter-Insurgency (1952-60)
--War Dead (~ 10,000 total)
Malaysian Independence (1957)

 

 

 

Tin
Rubber (Plantation)

Malayan National Liberation Front
"Squatters"

 

Villagization
Psy-Ops