Week 9 - The Cold War Heats Up

   

 

Image: American anti-communist pamphlets
Image: Soviet anti-capitalist art
Image: Cold War Box Score
Video: Korean War Atomic Cafe
Video: Full Atomic Cafe

 

Map: Animated Communist Conquest
Image: Communists Take Beijing

 

 

Image: Map of the Korean War Sequence

Map: Animated Map Korean War

 

 

 

Images: Anti-Americanism

The Cold War

RED CHINA

Civil War: China Goes Red
Nationalists and public relations
Communists and public relations
Outside support
Nationalist blunders, Communist successes
Chinese Communists Win (1949)
-Conquering Tibet (1950)
-Land Reform and Violence

Korean War
Summary of Events (1945-53)
The United Nations Security Council
Chinese Reaction (Summer 1950)
-Limited criticism of U.S.
-Public criticism escalates

Chinese "Volunteers" Enter the War (Winter 1950)
-UN forces enter North Korea
-Chinese forces drive south
-Stalemate and nuclear diplomacy (1951-53)

The Aftermath
-Realization that the army is obsolete
-Artistic represenations of the heroes
-Elevates Chinese-American hatred

In Light of the Cold War

 

Cold War

Mao Zedong
GMD (Guomindang)
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek)
People's Republic of China
Republic of China
Taiwan (Formosa)
United Nations

 

Zhou Enlai
Security Council



Containment
Rollback
Yalu River
Seoul
Inchon
Eisenhower
POWs

People's Liberation Army

 

 

Mar 17

 

Map: United Fruit Properties (1951) and Ports
Image: Anti-UFCo (Honduras 1955)

Image: Anti-US sticker (1954)


Image: Guatamala Bombed
Image: CIA trained soldiers
Image: Campesinos training

Images: Allen Dulles (CIA director)
Image: John Foster Dulles (Secretary of State)

 

 

Image: UFCo Ad (USA 1957)
Article: Life on Armas assassination (1957)

BITTER FRUIT IN A BANANA REPUBLIC:

The Arbenz Government (1950-54)
-Fighting foreign dependence, challenging United Fruit
-Agrarian reform and the nationalization of United Fruit land
-Disputing the worth

The U.S. State Gets Involved (1951-54)
-Anti-Communism and cutting aid
-The CIA in motion
Operation Success (1954)
-An arms shipment from the Czechs
-"Red" Guatemala
-Bombing runs and mercenaries--a small invasion
-Taking it to the UN
-Arbenz resigns

Why did the U.S. arrange this coup d'etat?
-Conflicts of interest
-Seeing Commies

Aftermath (1954-90)
-Armas dictatorship
-Agrarian export economies
-The End of United Fruit

 


 



United Fruit Company

("La Frutera")
Coup d'etat
Jacobo Arbenz
1952 Agrarian Reform Law
Bananas

World Bank
Anti-Communism
Organization of American States
CIA
Allen Dulles
Dean Acheson
Operation Success
Embargo
Eisenhower
John Foster Dulles
Castillo Armas
UN Security Council
Domino Effect
Truman Doctrine
Covert Action
Bay of Pigs
Richard Nixon
Anti-Trust

Mar 19

Image: Standard Oil as Octopus 1904
Image: BP and Mossadegh

Image: Iran anti-Soviet propaganda 1952

Image: Melli Bank 1955
Images: Iran urban scenes 1950
Image: Vocational students 1952

Images: Iran rural scenes

Image: Man of the Year, Mossadegh

Map: Baghdad Pact 1955
Cartoons: Cold War Arms Trade 1955, 1957, 1959
Text: USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Reaction to the Baghdad Pact (1955)

Cartoon: USA and Saudi Arabia (1957)

Image: Baghdad 1940s
Image: Kurdistan 1950
Image: Basra 1950

Map: Kurdish populations

CRUDE COUPS: The Cold War in the Persian Gulf

Petroleum in Iran (1941-53)
A Compliant Shah
Post-WWII Occupation
-Truman sabre-rattling 1946
Communist Politics
Majlis Revolt against the monarch
-Nationalizing oil fields in Iran
-Political Struggles and Popular Demonstrations
Operation Ajax
-Shah re-enthroned
Cruel Aftermath

 

International Diplomacy in Iraq
British Puppets/Communist Kurds
Baghdad Pact (1955)
Non-Alignment as an Arab option
Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)
-American Descriptions of Monarchies
Hashemites Overthrown (1958)
-Communists, Land Reform, and Pan-Arabism
-Nationalization and Poisoned Handkerchiefs
Aftermath: Military Coups and Instability

 

Oil
Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (BP)
Concessions
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlevi

Majlis
Mohammad Mossadegh (Mossadeq)
Nationalized
United Nations
Tudeh (Communist Party)
Abadan
Operation Ajax
Mohammad Zahedi
CIA
MI-6
SAVAK

Hashemite Dynasty

Brigadier Abd al-Karim Qasim (1958-63)
Kurds
Gamel Abdul-Nasser

"Health Alterations Committee"
CIA

Baathists

 

Images: Rural Congo

 

 

 

 

 

Image: UN Armored Cars

Map: Congo 1961

 

Image: Cuban Soldiers in the Congo

Image: Mobutu

THE CONGO CRISIS: The Cold War and Decolonization(?)

Since Leopold's Removal (1908-59)
The mineral wealth of the colony and its infrastructure
Urbanization (30k -> 400k Leopoldville)
Restrictions on Congoloese
Nationalist protest (1956-59)

A Quick Independence (1960)
Nothing left to govern with (little indirect rule)
A fragile state
Cold War Interests: Patrice Lumumba, "Soviet Stooge"

The State Crumbles (1960-65)
-Film excerpts: Africa: The Rise of Nationalism

Rise and Fall of Mobutu

Assassination of Lumumba

-Revolt in the Force Publique, foreigners flee
-The Katanga secession
-Lumumba removed, for good
-UN forces arrive (1960), win (1961-2), and depart (1963)
-Further revolts (1964-5)
-Interference from outsiders, aid from the Communist bloc

Mobutu ascends (1965-1975)
-American Support
-Mobutism



Cobalt, Copper, Gold, Tin, and Industrial Diamonds

Force Publique
Indirect Rule
Patrice Lumumba
CIA

Allen Dulles

Katanga
Moise Tshombe
Kasai
Joseph Mobutu /Mobutu Sese-Seko
Joseph Kasavubu
Kisangani
Che Guevera
United Nations
Dag Hammarskjold
Laurent Kabila


Zaire


Week 10: Decolonization?