Annotated Bibliography of Vietnam War Film Criticism

Introduction Acknowledgements Comments
Alternate chronological arrangement (through July 2003)
La Salle University | Connelly Library | Special Collections | Vietnam | Online Texts

Compiled by John K. McAskill, Systems Librarian, La Salle University


This bibliography includes monographs, theses, chapters in books, articles in collections, periodical and newspaper articles, book reviews and World Wide Web sites which discuss three or more dramatic films related to Vietnam's wars in the twentieth century. Sources which are more narrowly focused are included in a bibliography of film reviews and criticism grouped by specific film titles elsewhere on this site.

The scope of what constitutes a "Vietnam War" film for my purposes (and in the "Imaginative representations of the Vietnam War" Collection at La Salle) is intentionally broad. Essentially, I have included in this canon any dramatic film which: (1) describes events in Vietnam preceding or contributing to American involvement; (2) depicts war related events during the period of active American involvement (1961-1975); or (3) shows the continuing effects of the war in Vietnam and elsewhere since 1975.

Most of the material in this bibliography is available in the La Salle collection either as an original document or photocopy. Any document preceded by an asterisk (*) was not available for review in its entirety and is, therefore, not available at La Salle.

Following the regular alphabetical bibliography is a chronological arrangement of the same citations


I would particularly like to thank Stephen Breedlove, Interlibrary Loan Librarian, Nancy Tresnan, and the rest of the dedicated ILL staff for their indispensable assistance over the years in deciphering obscure citations and in retrieving copies of this material.


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Annotated bibliography of Vietnam War film criticism


Adair, Gilbert. Hollywood's Vietnam : from the Green berets to Apocalypse now London ; New York : Proteus Books, 1981.

Reprinted as: Vietnam on film New York : Proteus, 1981.

[Chronological analysis of the first wave of American Vietnam War films in the 1960s and 1970s, with emphasis on The Green berets and Apocalypse now. Notes Hollywood's self-censorship, use of other genres and the reversal of chronology in covering the war. The subject was too complex to be confined in closed plot structures. Even coverage of the youth culture tended to reveal contradictions rather than substance. Beyond mere documentation, the absence of movies on Vietnam makes it worthy of study. Filmography and index]

___________. Hollywood's Vietnam London : Heinemann, 1989.

[Revised and updated ed. Discusses over sixty feature films in the first wave (1968-79) and the second wave of the 1980s. Filmography and index]

Adams, William. "Screen wars: The battle for Vietnam" Dissent 37 (winter 1980), p. 65-72.

Reprinted as: "Vietnam screen wars" in Culture in an age of money : the legacy of the 1980's in America (edited by Nicholas Mills) Chicago : Dee, 1991. (p. 156-84)

[The second wave of Vietnam War films is not simply a manifestation of "Reaganism" (reaffirmation of "traditional" values, anti-communism, fetishes of the marketplace, and an attack on alternative lifestyles) but shows tangled impulses: self-criticism and reaffirmation, toughness and sentimentality]

______________. "Still shooting after all these years" Mother Jones 13 (Jan 1988), p. 47-9.

[On the second wave of Vietnam War films with emphasis on Distant thunder, Bat 21, Good Morning Vietnam, and Off limits]

______________. "War stories: Movies, memory and the Vietnam War" Comparative social research 11 (1989), p. 165-83.

[Inspite of the urge to domesticate the war, empty it of political content or somehow make it palpable, the message of the second wave of Vietnam War films is profoundly mixed: criticism and nervous compensation, self-doubt and reaffirmation, cultural lucidity and self-preoccupation. Bibliographical references]

Adatto, Kiku. American fantasy : social conflicts and social myths in films of the 1970s Thesis (Ph.D.)--State University of New York, Stony Brook, 1982.

[Examines the portrayal of American institutions in dramatic films of the 1970s in light of the cultural crisis engendered by the Vietnam War and Watergate.. Uses content analysis to examine the foreground and background of the ten top grossing films of the decade as well as films receiving major awards. Found that two thirds of these films dramatized institutional corruption and ineffectiveness. They rarely presented role models of individuals reforming or transforming these institutions. The heroes are mavericks who resist or deviate from institutional goals. Reformers or protesters are rarely presented as heroic role models. Bibliography and filmography]

Ahlander, Lars. "Tran Vu, vietnamesisk film-veteran" Chaplin 22/1 [166] (Feb 1980), p. 31-2.

[Interview with the veteran director Tran Vu on the current state of the Vietnamese film industry. In Swedish]

Aidan, Marceau. "Nantes 92 : le cinema vietnamien" Jeune cinema n.223 (Jul/Aug 1993), p. 43-4.

[Reviews Vietnamese films shown at the festival. In French]

Alexander, William. "Vietnam: An appropriate pedagogy" Jump cut (Mar 31, 1986), p. 59-62.

[Suggests appropriate approach and syllabus for the study of the Vietnam War on film]

Allen, Douglas (see under Coming to terms)

Allen, Henry. "Images of the last real war: For the desert troops, battle visions shaped by Vietnam films" Washington post (Jan 3, 1991), p. C1, C13.

[American troops in Saudi Arabia for Desert Storm recount the influence of Vietnam War films on their perceptions of war]

Alonge, Andrea Giaime. "Il tamburo e il televisore : riflessioni sul Vietnam movie e su Gardens of stone" in Vietnam e ritorno (p. 85-106)

[Analyzes characters in a range of Vietnam War and veteran films with a focus on Gardens of stone. In Italian]

America rediscovered : critical essays on literature and film in the Vietnam War (edited by Owen W. Gilman, Jr. and Lorrie Smith) New York : Garland, 1990.

[Collection of 23 (6 on film) essays "about the condition of being an American - past, present, and future … by means of careful consideration of various texts that have emerged from the experience of the war in Vietnam" (p.xiii). Relevant articles cited separately]

American Film Institute catalog of motion pictures produced in the United States New York : R.R. Bowker, 1970-

[Provides plot summaries, cast and credits, and subject analysis of films by decade]

Anderegg, Michael. "Hollywood and Vietnam: John Wayne and Jane Fonda as discourse" in Inventing Vietnam (p. 15-32)

[Hollywood failed to participate imaginatively in the Vietnam War, but Hollywood films, "in particular, World War II combat films" are texts "frequently alluded to in the literature and postwar films of Vietnam." (p. 15) There is "a pervasive intertextuality in the Vietnam discourse" where allusions from film to literature and back seem endless. John Wayne and Jane Fonda represent a discourse within the film industry itself between "old" and "new" Hollywood. Bibliographical references]

Appelo, Tim. "Where the war goes on and on ...: In books, movies, and television, we have tried both to face the war and to domesticate it" Entertainment weekly (Feb 23, 1990), p. 53-4.

[Aftermath of the war in American arts]

* Asenas, Jennifer J. Redressing the Vietnam syndrome : the variations on a just war theme in three post-Vietnam World War II films Thesis (M.A.)—California State University, Long Beach, 2002.

[Analyzes Saving Private Ryan, The thin red line and Pearl Harbor. Bibliography]

Aufderheide, Pat. "Inventing Vietnam : the war in film and television" Film quarterly 46/1 (fall 1992), p. 42-3.

[Review essay. Describes the 14 essays as "unarticulated" and "literary-criticism-derived" in their approach that teases implications out of narrative and dialogue. "They mostly share an also unarticulated understanding of the relevant data, which is big-name, fictional industry productions with a centrist or liberal perspective from 1978-80 and 1985-89." (p. 42). Finds Thomas Slater's essay "Teaching Vietnam: The politics of documentary" invigorating, but many of the other essays are hampered by "obscurantism" and "textual tunnel vision."]

________________. "Vietnam: Good soldiers" in Seeing through movies (edited by Mark Crispin Miller) New York : Pantheon, 1990. (p. 83-111)

[Analyzes the second wave of films and TV shows on Vietnam as generic Vietnam War narratives (C.D.B. Bryan's term for Vietnam War literature) which feature the gradual deterioration of order, disintegration of idealism, breakdown of character, alienation from those at home, and finally, the loss of all sensibility save the will to survive. These films celebrate survival as a form of heroism and cynicism as a form of self-preservation. The noble-grunt films recast the war as a test of physical and psychological survival by people with no authority and too much responsibility. The enemy is not so much the Vietnamese as the abstract forces of bureaucracy and the incompetence of superiors. Bibliographical references]

________________. "The Vietnam of movies and TV" Canadian dimension 22/8 (Nov 1988), p. 8-11.

[Reviews the second wave of Vietnam War films, with an emphasis on Dear America: Letters home from Vietnam and China Beach. These programs wave away confusions about the 1960s. The Vietnamese disappear. The enemy becomes the officers and the drama becomes one of survival in a world that doesn't make sense]

Aulich, James (see under Vietnam images)

Auster, Al and Quart, Leonard. "Hollywood and the Vietnam War" Democratic left 16/1 (Jan/Feb 1988), p. 13-14.

[Analysis of the shortcomings of the second wave of Vietnam War films which provide more obfuscation than insight into the decade of the 1960s]

________________________. "Hollywood and Vietnam: The triumph of the will" Cineaste 9 (spring 1979), p. 4-9.

[On the first wave of Vietnam War films. They lack political insight and a grasp of complexities. If there is an anti-war message, it is often abstract, ambiguous, or idiosyncratic. In fact, these films may not be about Vietnam at all, but about something more problematic in the postwar American soul and psyche. Concentrates on The deer hunter]

________________________. How the war was remembered : Hollywood & Vietnam New York : Praeger, 1988.

[Traces Hollywood's attempts to encapsulate and interpret the Vietnam War for the American public from the 1950s thru the 1980s. Though primarily a social, political and cultural study, the book also critically discusses the films' technical and aesthetic detail. Vietnam remains in our collective memory as an unhealed wound, never fully understood. Old Hollywood war film conventions were inadequate to capture the reality of the war. For economic reasons, Hollywood avoided this divisive and controversial subject until passions cooled in the 1970s when the returned veteran became a symbol of the war. He was depicted as alienated, and sometimes shattered or psychopathic. Some films of the 1970s also attempted to depict the battlefield, but concentrated on chaos and extremity and missed the complex texture of the war. They centered on metaphoric and symbolic figures and did not touch the historic or political bases of the war or the Vietnamese viewpoint. Not until Platoon in 1986 (with the exception of Go tell the Spartans and some scenes in The Deer hunter) did films attempt to realistically depict the front line GI's experience. Bibliography and index]

________________________. "Man and superman : Vietnam and the new American hero" Social policy 11 (January/February, 1981), p. 60-64.

[Vietnam War films create a mythic fabric that helps the public comprehend the war and integrate it into the American imagination and psyche. This is done with two archetypal heroes: the wounded veteran and the superman. Each provides a convenient symbol for a war that was impossible to deal with in the traditional Hollywood manner]

________________________. "The wounded vet in postwar film" Social policy (fall 1982), p. 25-31.

[Traditional shallow Hollysood treatment of the disabled began to change after World War II. Vietnam War veterans, not having fought for a good cause however, were often stereotyped as some variety of madman. Films like Coming home and Cutter's way have begun to treat disabled veterans with greater greater realism]

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Badsey, Stephen. “The depiction of war reporters in Hollywood feature films from the Vietnam War to the present” Film history 14 (2002), p. 243-60.

[A faculty member from Sandhurst studies film depictions of war reporters from The Green Berets to We were soldiers. War films in general and those featuring journalist characters in particular are formulaic. “In war films that have American soldiers in combat as their main focus, the reporter is either an important secondary character who is won over to the military in the course of the film, or a minor character who is a figure of contempt. In films that do not feature American wars, the reporter is the central character but the story is about personal relationships, never about actual reporting.” (p. 243-4). Discusses 12 films with Vietnam War connections. Bibliographical references]

Baltake, Joe. "The soldier's story" Sacramento bee (Mar 6, 1988), Encore magazine, p. 16, 19.

[Survey of American war films with a concentration on the second wave of Vietnam War films. Finds the new war films are about self-aggrandizement and are often anti-patriotic. They are about macho codes and becoming a man. Includes chronological analysis of Vietnam War films from 1968-88]

Balzar, John. "Vietnam and culture; Lessons and legacies / 25 years after Vietnam; Coming home is never easy" Los Angeles times (Apr 16, 2000), Calendar, p. 4.

[Interview of Oliver Stone and Tony Bui with references to Born on the Fourth of July, Heaven and earth, Platoon and Three seasons]

Banh, Bao. "Film in Vietnam" Film und Fernsehen 16/4 (1988), p. 48-9.

[Brief survey of Vietnamese film production from the origins to the present day. Filmography. In German.]

_________ and Huu, Ngoc. L'itineraire du film de fiction Vietnamien : experiences vietnamiennes Hanoi : Editions en langues etrangers, 1984.

[History of dramatic filmmaking in Vietnam. Includes filmographies for 1959-83 with Vietnamese and French titles and credits]

Banner, Fiona. The Nam London : Frith Street Books, 1997.

[A text with its origins in the author's one-off book exhibition in the "Spellbound" exhibition at the Hayward Gallery in London in 1996 alongside her large scale hand-written transcription of Apocalypse now and drawing of a Chinook helicopter. This text is a seemless, shot by shot, continuous present tense description of six Vietnam War movies (Apocalypse now, The Deer hunter, Hamburger Hill, Platoon, Full metal jacket, and Born on the Fourth of July). The author/artist's objective was to create an ambiguous space parallel to the films, distant, separate, at the same time both inside and outside the filmic space, defying both narrative conventions and the immediacy of the cinema]

Barton, Kenneth G. The celluloid legacy : the Vietnam War portrayed in Hollywood films, 1977-1979 Thesis (M.A.)--Georgetown University, 1983. (xii, 106 leaves)

[An evaluation of the "Vietnam experience" by examining how the war is portrayed in commercial film to see how these "reflect the societal values, fears and myths that generated America's tragic intervention in Vietnam." (p. viii). Since the promulgation of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, finds three periods of filmmaking about Vietnam: the pre-war years (1948-63); the crisis years (1964-75); and the post-war cycle (1976-79). In the last period, the author finds three subcategories of film: the veteran on the home-front; the soldier in combat; and the epic (The deer hunter). Analyzes The Green Berets, the documentary Hearts and minds and eight other films of the 1977-79 first wave. Bibliography]

Bassan, Raphael. "Paris" revue du cinema n. 397 (1984), p. 85-6.

[Report on a Vietnamese film festival in Paris, June 20-26, with reference to a number of films on the war. In French]

Bates, Milton J. "Men, women and Vietnam" in America rediscovered (1990) (p. 27-63)

[Traces the history of the sexual revolution of the sixties and early seventies and then discusses some literature and film in which the revolution and its attendant conflicts are represented and which suggest how men and women can still be one. Refers particularly to The big chill, In country, and Coming home in this regard. Bibliographical references]

____________. The wars we took to Vietnam : cultural conflict and storytelling Berkeley, Calif. : Univ. of California Press, 1996.

"A Battalion of films follows 'Platoon'" World press review 34 (May 1987), p. 59.

Reprinted from The Guardian (London)

[On the second wave of Vietnam War films]

Bayer, William. "Films in Vietnam" Film comment 5/2 (spring 1969), p. 46-80.

[Series of interviews of an anonymous former film officer with the USIS who spent two years in Vietnam. He describes USIA/USIA and South Vietnamese propaganda films, the National Motion Picture Center of South Vietnam, NLF films, etc.]

____________. "Letters" Film comment 6/2 (summer 1970), p. 56-8.

[Comments and corrects errors in his interview which he says was published without his permission]

Bayles, Martha. "The road to Rambo III: Hollywood's vision of Vietnam" New republic (Jul 19-25, 1988), p. 30-35.

[Analyzes the evolution of Vietnam War films over the thirty years from The ugly American to Rambo III.]

Beattie, Keith. "The healed wound: Metaphor and the impact of the Vietnam War" Australasian journal of American studies 9/1 (1990), p. 38-48.

[Blames depictions of the Vietnam War that employ euphemistic metaphors, specifically alluding to wounds and healing, for the war's continuing consequences. Images and language used in media, theater, movies and literature fail to acknowledge the division in U.S. society, presenting instead a false picture of consensus. The general populace gained a false sense of distance and nonaccountability when description of the war changed from that of a contagious disease to one of physical disability able to be quickly tended]

____________. "The Vietnam veteran as ventriloquist" Media international Australia no. 80 (May 1996), p. 46-52.

[Analyzes the changing image of the veteran in Vietnam War films from psychotic to incoherent or inarticulate to heroic as it fit the needs of establishment media and politicians]

Beaver, Frank E. (see under "Professor rates movies…")

* Beck, Avenk C. Mythic structures in popular Vietnam combat movies Thesis (M.A.)-- Columbia University, 1990.

Bellamy, Michael. "Carnival and carnage: Falling like rock stars and second lieutenants" in America rediscovered (1990) (p. 10-15)

[Asserts a conflation of carnival and war in Vietnam, an amusement park where the social rules were suspended. This is illustrated with reference to Born on the Fourth of July, The Deer hunter, Southern comfort, Apocalypse now and Americana. Bibliographical references]

Bereznitskii, Ian. "Gollivud i uotergeit, ili kino dlia 'Molchalivogo bol'shinstva'" Iskusstvo kino 2 (1982), p. 134-62.

[In Russian]

Berg, Rick. "Losing Vietnam : Covering the war in an age of technology" Culture critique no. 3 (spring 1986), p. 92-125.

Reprinted in Historical memory and representations of the Vietnam War (edited by Walter L. Hixson) New York : Garland, 2000. (p. 264-98)

[The war that had faded from memory in the 1970s was resurrected in the 1980s by publishers, and TV, movie and music producers. Vietnam remains despite ritual cleansings and willed suspensions of memory. These presentations of the ruins and fragments of Vietnam represent not only America's desire to win the lost war, but also Vietnam's continuing liberation. Each new imagined success thus only serves to picture America's defeat]

________ (see also under James, David)

Bernard, Gabrielle. "Letters: Vietnam movies: Quieting ghosts" New York times 139 (Jun 17, 1990), sec. 2, p. 3.

[Response to Thomas Bird's article cited below]

Bernardoni, James. The new Hollywood : what the movies did with the new freedoms of the seventies Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, 1991.

[Analyzes thirteen significant films of the 1970s (four with Vietnam connections), most of which have fallen prey to a series of aesthetic fallacies: the television fantasy (American graffiti); the literary fantasy (Apocalypse now); the Hitchcockian fantasy (Taxi driver); and the Hawksian fantasy (M*A*S*H). Bibliographical references and index]

Berti, Raffaele de. "Il recupero del mito dell'identita nazionale americano nel Vietnam film" in Vietnam e ritorno (p. 51-72)

[Answers the questions of whether the Vietnam War film is a unique genre, what separates it from the classical war film, and what American cultural archetypes reappear in these films. Refers particularly to The Deer hunter, Casualties of war and Heaven and earth. Bibliographical references. In Italian]

Bertrand, Ina. "From silence to reconciliation: The representation of the Vietnam War in Australian film and television" Historical journal of film, radio and television 8/1 (1988), p. 75-89.

[Discusses The odd angry shot, the TV mini series Sword of honour and other Australian productions]

Bird, Thomas. "Man and boy confront the images of war" New York times 139 (May 27, 1990), sec. 2, p. 11, 16.

[The author, a Vietnam veteran and artistic director of the Vietnam Veterans Ensemble Theater Company in New York who produced the play Tracers and co-produced Dear America …, recounts the influence of war films on his perceptions of war before, during and since the war. He argues we must stop refighting the war. To get over Vietnam We need to show remorse to the Vietnamese. We need a movie in which the Vietnamese are in the forefront]

"Blacks blast movie and TV industries perpetuation of old stereotyped images" Jet 75 (Nov 28, 1988), p. 64.

[Brief report of criticism voiced at the Virginia Festival of American Film. Good times star John Amos cited Full metal jacket and Platoon as underplaying the Black role in Vietnam]

Blake, Richard A. "The tide of pomp: Images of war in a season of peace" America 162/3 (Jan 27, 1990), p. 62-5.

[While prior Vietnam War films drained the romance out of war, three new films (Oliver Stone's Born on the Fourth of July, Edward Zwick's Glory, and Kenneth Branagh's Henry V)raise doubts about how much the myth makers have changed their attitudes about war]

Blas, Juan Antonio de. "Vietnam, Vietnam: Inventario de un desastre" Cuadernos del norte 7/35 (1986), p. 30-5.

[Surveys film treatments of the Indochina wars from The ugly American and Lost command to The A Team and Full metal jacket. In Spanish]

Blaszczyna, Stanislaw. "Od zieleni beretow do wioski My Lai" Kino 25/1 [283] (Jan 1991), p. 12-17.

[Analysis of the political, sociological and cultural aspects of US films about the Vietnam War. With selective chronological filmography. In Polish]

Blowen, Michael. "'Platoon' leads charge on war fantasies" Boston globe (Jan 4, 1987), Arts and films, p. B21-22.

[For the last decade most films on the Vietnam War have "attempted to erase its memory with jingoism and patriotic jargon." (i.e. Top gun, Commando, Rambo, Missing in action and Heartbreak Ridge). "But there are a few cinematic reminders around to offset the absurd fantasies" Platoon is the most recent of these and is in the tradition of other Vietnam War films where moral dilemmas are not resolved by one-dimensional heroes (The deer hunter, Go tell the Spartans, and Apocalypse now)]

Bogle, Daniel. Blacks in American films and television : an encyclopedia New York : Garland, 1988.

[Includes descriptions of 19 films and television programs with Vietnam War connections]

Borg, Ed (see under Langman, Larry)

Boulton, Mark. Repatriation through film ; the role of the American film industry in changing public perceptions about Vietnam soldiers and veterans since the late 1970s Thesis (M.A.)--University of Southern Mississippi, 1997. (xi, 129 leaves)

[In contrast to earlier wars, Vietnam veterans were at first scorned and vilified, blamed for causing America's first military defeat and committing war crimes against the Vietnamese. Early film portrayals tended to be defamatory. In the late 1970s, greater public understanding of veterans' sacrifices led to more sympathetic cinematic portrayals. In the militaristic milieu of the early 1980s these portrayals became adulatory. In the later 1980s Vietnam War films attempted to give a more realistic depiction of American soldiers in Vietnam. Though not glorifying, these films were still sympathetic. Thus films contributed to the rehabilitation of the image of Vietnam soldiers and veterans. Filmography and bibliography]

Bowen, Kevin. "Strange hells: Hollywood in search of America's lost war" in From Hanoi to Hollywood (p. 226-35)

[Attempting to come to terms with the Vietnam War through films can be problematic, especially for veterans, because films trivialize actual experience and then demand public responses from what is, at best, an ambivalent audience. Examining Hollywood's attempts to "locate the experience of the Vietnam War" the author finds them cartoonish, adolescent, and exploitative. More contemplative films with literary pretensions present landscapes of allegory, metaphor and allusion where the protagonists struggle to understand. Quest films attempt to discover and redeem what was lost in the war, but what was lost cannot be retrieved. Concludes with an analysis of Platoon's appeal to veterans as an "evocation of conflict and loss" enduring long after the war]

Bowles, Stephen E. The film anthologies index Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow, 1994.

Bradley, Mark Philip. Contests of memory : war and remembrance in contemporary Vietnam [unpublished conference paper, 1998] (38 p.)

[Discusses revisionist Vietnamese films of the 1980's which counter official constructions of the history and effects of the Vietnam War on the people of Vietnam]

* Brennan, Raymond Joseph. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans : cultural representation and therapeutic models Thesis (Ph.D.)--Washington State University, 1997. (vii, 267 leaves)

Breteque, Francois de la. "L'Indochine au coeur d'une oeuvre: L'iliade et l'odyssee de Pierre Schoendoerffer" Cahiers de la cinematheque n.57 (Oct 1992), p. 74-83.

[A review of the influence of Indochina and the Vietnam Wars in Schoendoerffer's work, with concentration on Dien Bien Phu]

Brewin, Bob (Robert). "Hollywood takes on Vietnam: Filmmakers fictions bring the war home" Video (Oct 1987), p. 52-5, 112-13.

[Marine veteran reviews and reacts to a selection of Vietnam War films]

_________________. "TV's newest villain: The Vietnam veteran" TV guide (Jul 19, 1979), p. 4-8.

[Marine veteran protests the way Vietnam veterans have been stereotyped as psychopaths on TV (since at least 1974)]

Britton, Andrew. "Sideshows: Hollywood in Vietnam" Movie 27-28 (winter-spring 1980-81), p. 2-23.

[Examines how Hollywood portrayed the war in such 1970's films as The Deer hunter, Apocalypse now and Coming home]

Brode, Douglas. Films of the sixties Secaucus, N.J. : Citadel Press, 1980.

[Discusses nine films with Vietnam War connections]

Broeske, Pat H. "Jungle dreams" Stills 19 (May 1985), p. 27.

[Brief review of forthcoming Vietnam War films of the second wave which, ten years after the event, are moving towards a portrayal of Vietnam veterans as heroes]

Brownlie, Tom. "Memories of Vietnam: We gotta get out of this place" Film [UK] 3/9 (Nov 1987), p. 9.

[Brief mention of a 1987 season of films on the Vietnam War put together by the NFT which coincided with the release of Full metal jacket and Hamburger Hill. Finds human issues not usually dealt with in several of these films]

Bruha, James Joseph. The Vietnam War in film from fiction : challenging the myth of Hollywood's crusade against America's longest war Thesis (M.A.)--Colorado State University, 1998. (vi, 83 leaves)

[A study of Hollywood's changes to six Vietnam War novels adapted for the screen from the 1950s to the 1980s reveals the evolution of American thinking and attitudes toward the war. This study refutes the common belief that Hollywood, unlike in prior wars, chose to depict only the worst aspects of Vietnam. In fact, the six films studied show a decidedly more favorable view of the war than their literary sources. Bibliography]

Budra, Paul. "Rambo in the garden: The POW film as pastoral" Literature/film quarterly 18/3 (Jul 1990), p. 188-92.

[Examines a number of US war films exemplified by the Rambo cycle, which take their lead from the The Green Berets. "Films of the political right, they do not condemn American involvement in Vietnam, but they condemn the American defeat; they do not portray American soldiers as tragically misplaced teenagers, but as heroes betrayed" (p. 188). These films share a common narrative revolving around the American prisoner of war. Bibliographical references]

Bui, Phu. "Nang tien bay tren que huong dat Viet" in his Dien anh qua nhung chang duong Ha Noi : Van Hoa, 1981.

[Translated into Italian as "La settima dea" in Mostra internazionale del nuovo cinema (19th : 1983 : Pesaro, Italy). Cinemasia. Venice : Marsillo, 1983. [v. 1. Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia] (p. 22-60)]
[Translated into English as "The seventh goddess" in Framework 25 (1984), p. 70-93]

[General history of filmmaking in Vietnam With references to the international background. This chapter traces the origins of Vietnamese cinema through the colonial traditions they resisted]

Burnett, Robert P. "Real life, reel war" San Francisco chronicle (Feb 25, 1990), World, p. 20.

[Vietnam veteran free-lance writer complains that Vietnam War movies and television programs offer a false reality. Movie heroes are hot real heroes. Those who star in Vietnam War films were doing something quite different when the real war was going on]

Burton, Jonathan. "The Vietnam Film Project" Nation 248 (Jun 12, 1988), p. 825-27.

[Describes a group of six Vietnamese films touring the U.S. under the auspices of the U.C.L.A. Film and Television Archive]

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C., H.. (see under "Films voor Vietnam")

Cagin, Seth and Dray, Philip. Hollywood films of the seventies : sex drugs, violence, rock n' roll and politics New York : Harper & Row, 1984.

[Analyzes eighteen feature films with Vietnam War connections. Bibliographical references and index]

Caldwell, Gail. "Vietnam in film; The catharsis continues" Boston globe (Aug 25, 1989), p. 71.

[Within a review of Casualties of war, examines the Vietnam film genre. Concludes "the cruelest legacy of the war may be that there were too many truths in Vietnam - and too many lies - to ever get them all."]

Callaghan, David Scott. Representing the Vietnamese : race, culture, and the Vietnam War in American film and drama Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of New York, 1998. (348 p.)

[Examines the ways in which Vietnamese are represented in cinematic and theatrical recreations of the war. Shows how the images and themes of such works reinterpret, reinvent or reinforce earlier depictions of race and culture established in the film and stage combat genre. Places depictions of Vietnamese in the context of previous portrayals of non-white "enemies" or others during and after earlier wars. Filmography and bibliography]

Calloway, Catherine. "American literature and film of the Vietnam War: Classroom strategies and critical sources" in The Vietnam War : teaching approaches and resources (edited by Marc Jason Gilbert) New York : Greenwood Press, 1991. (p. 139-59)

[Bibliographic essay on sources extant thru 1990 with suggestions for using literature and film to teach about the war]

________________ "Vietnam War literature and film: A bibliography of secondary sources" Bulletin of bibliography 43/3 (Sep 1986), p. 149-58.

Camacho, Paul. "The future of patriotism: The war film, the cinema industry, and the Vietnam veteran movement" New England journal of history 47/1 (1990), p. 32-42.

[Discusses the portrayal of the Vietnam veteran on television and in film, the effects of mass media on veteran employment and acceptance in society, political control over veterans' organizations, and the role of the veteran in defining patriotism and nationalism]

Canby, Vincent. "Hollywood focuses on Vietnam at last" New York times (Feb 19, 1978), sec. 2, p. 1+

[Discusses A letter to Jane and other recent films on the Vietnam War and veterans]

Caparros Lera, Jose Maria. La Guerra de Vietnam, entre la historia y el cineBarcelona : Editorial Ariel, 1998.

[Cinema is a testimony of society and a historical source which reflects the mind set of a particular period. Uses Vietnam War films as a case for the sociological study of the relationship between film and history. Based on exercises for a course at the University of Barcelona. Bibliography and filmography. In Spanish]

Cardullo, Bert. "Vietnam revisited and recent fiction films about the Vietnam War" Hudson review 40/3 (1987), p. 459-64.

[Argues Platoon and Go tell the Spartans are the best fiction films about the Vietnam War]

Casciato, Arthur D. "Teaching the literature of the Vietnam War" Review 9 (1987), p. 125-47.

[Compares major bibliographies and reviews of Vietnam War fiction with some mention of the impact of motion pictures]

Cavallero, Joseph. Reflections on a little war : the Vietnam conflict as portrayed in selected examples of art, literature, film, and popular music Thesis (M.A.)--Northwest Missouri State University, 1980.

[Examines how the war has been portrayed as a way of better understanding U.S. motives for going to Vietnam. Discusses The Green Berets, Coming home and The Deer hunter. Bibliography]

Cawley, Leo. "Refighting the war: Why the movies are in Vietnam" Village voice 32/36 (Sep 8, 1987), p. 18, 20, 22-3.

[Explores reasons for the popularity of Vietnam War films and Hollywood's continued misrepresentation of domestic dissent and the military of the Vietnam era]

_____________. "The war about the war: Vietnam films and American myth" in From Hanoi to Hollywood (p. 69-80)

[Revision of his 1987 Village Voice article]

Cerone, Daniel. "War & peace on Vietnam film front: Vietnamese-U.S. film symposium stirs passions" Los Angeles times (Apr 29, 1989), Calendar, p. 1.

[Describes protests by South Vietnamese exiles at a symposium of Vietnamese and American filmmakers held in conjunction with the Vietnam Film Project film series]

Chang, Cha. "... O mire, o druzhbe" Iskusstvo kino n. 1 (1974), p. 124-6.

[In Russian]

Charlot, John. "Victims of a common tragedy: While Vietnam struggles to recover, its film industry works to heal and humanize those who were once on opposing sides of the war" Los Angeles times (Aug 26, 1990), Calendar, p. 5.

[Describes the history of the Vietnam Film Project and reactions when five Vietnamese films about the war were shown in the United States]

_____________. "Vietnamese cinema: First views" Journal of Southeast Asian studies 22/1 (Mar 1991), p. 33-62.

Reprinted in Colonialism and nationalism in Asian cinema (edited by Wimal Dissanayake) Bloomington and Indianapolis : Indiana Univ. Press, 1994. (p. 105-40)
Reprinted in Historical memory and representations of the Vietnam War (edited by Walter L. Hixson) New York : Garland, 2000 (p. 189-218)

[Sketch of the state of Vietnamese cinema at the end of the 1980s with many references to films on the war. Includes filmography and bibliographical references]

_____________. "Vietnamese cinema, the power of the past" Journal of American folklore 102/406 (Oct-Dec 1989), p. 442-52.

[Describes the author's July 1987 trip to Hanoi to preview Vietnamese films for showing at the Hawaii International Film Festival. Describes the Vietnam Cinema Department archives and documentary production during the war. Though Vietnamese cinema is young, some feature films of historical and aesthetic value have been produced. The author examines historical and cultural influences on these films. He finds poetry, music and dance to be prime influences and the response of individuals to crisis a principal theme]

Cheramy, Yann. La guerre du Viet-Nam et le traumatisme des Etats-Unis : une source d'inspiration inepuisable pour le cinema americain Thesis (Licence de Sociologie)-Universite de Nantes, 2002. (29, [16] leaves)

[The author's analysis with a sociological survey of French opinion of aspects of nine major American Vietnam War films from The deer hunter (1978) to Forrest Gump (1994). Bibliography. In French]

Chi, Ngo Hieu. “Challenges to the National Film Collection in Vietnam” Journal of film preservation no. 60/61 (July 2000), p. 36-40.

[A report on the state of the 20,000 films in the collections of the Vietnam Film Institute (formerly the Vietnam Film Archive), the battle against mould (35 species!) and vinegar syndrome, and efforts at film restoration]

Christensen, Terry. Reel politics : American political movies from Birth of a nation to Platoon New York : Blackwell, 1987.

[Analysis of eighteen films with Vietnam War connections. Bibliography, filmography and index]

Christopher, Renny. "Images of Vietnamese in American film: The Mafia and the super-capitalists" Viet Nam generation 7/1-2 (1996), p. 106-8.

[Analyzes depictions of Vietnamese in Alamo Bay, Steele justice, Vietnam Texas, and Gleaming the cube]

__________________. The Viet Nam war/the American war : images and representations in Euro-American and Vietnamese exile narratives Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of California, Santa Cruz, 1992. (413 p.)

Published, Amherst, MA: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1995.

[Chiefly an analysis of literary representations with references to film in her chapter 4, "Euro-American representations of the Vietnamese." Bibliography]

Chua, Lawrence. "Cinema now: Of love and war: Cinema of Vietnam" Village voice 39 (Jan 25, 1994), p. 56-7.

[Reviews a retrospective of Vietnamese film sponsored by Asian Cinevision including Em be Hanoi, Bao gio cho den thang muoi, Thi tran yen tinh, Anh va em and Co gai tren song]

Chyong, Kha Suan. "... Svoe nepovtorimoe siovo : Nastoishoee iskusstvo ne stareet" Iskusstvo kino (1980) n. 1, p. 79-82.

[In Russian]

Cielo, Silvana. "Saigon" Filmcritica 39/385-386 (Aug-Sep, 1988), p. 12-13.

[In Italian]

Cieutat, Michel. "Hollywood et le Viet-nam : Ou les contours de le verite" Positif 320 (Oct 1987), p. 50-58.

[Survey of Hollywood's depictions of the Vietnam War and those who fought there. Begins with a brief survey of Korean War films. Filmography. In French]

"Cinema vietnamien" Cinethique (1974) (see under Fargier, J.-P.)

Clark, Michael. "Remembering Vietnam" Cultural critique 3 (spring 1986), p. 46-78.

Reprinted in The Vietnam War and American culture (edited by John Carlos Rowe and Rick Berg) New York : Columbia Univ. Press, 1991. (p. 177-207)
Reprinted in Historical memory and representations of the Vietnam War (edited by Walter L. Hixson) New York : Garland, 2000 (p. 232-263)

[Since 1975 the U.S. media industry has worked to represent the war and its veterans in a form comparable to the traditional norms of popular culture and the various events surrounding the tenth anniversary of the fall of Saigon show their success. Analyzes television and film coverage of the war and veterans to see how the outrage of forgotten soldiers which had forced the country to confront its hypocrisy in the early 1980s was drowned out and the image of the veteran changed. Bibliographical references]

______________. "Vietnam : Representation of self and war" Wide angle 7/4 (1985), p. 4-11.

[Asks the question: Can the representations of war in film, literature and elsewhere bring about the realization of the responsibility of all for what happened in Vietnam? Not easily. The tendency is to domesticate violence rather than learn from it. Bibliographical references]

Comber, Michael and O'Brien, Margaret. "Evading the war : The politics of the Hollywood Vietnam film" History [London] 73/238 (Jun 1988), p. 248-60.

[Discusses representations of the Vietnam War from The Green Berets (1968) to Rambo (1985) concentrating on major mainstream productions which the authors believe to be the most widely revealing of ideology. Taken together, they trace the rise of the counter culture and uncover the various ways in which its assumptions and ideology are intertwined and dependant on those of the conventional society to which it is opposed. Concludes with a brief note about the second wave of Vietnam War films. Bibliographical references]

Coming to terms : Indochina, the United States, and the war (edited by Douglas Allen and Ngo Vinh Long) Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press, 1991.

[Revised and expanded version of the twentieth anniversary issue of The bulletin of concerned Asian scholars (December 1989). Relevant articles cited separately. Chronology and selected bibliography]

Connolly, Keith. "Vietnam on film" Cinema papers n.21 (May-Jun 1070), p. 334-8.

[Discusses five films. Questions their lack of political or social rationale. Asserts they are typical of their genre in presenting nationalistic propaganda, rather than reflecting reality. He suggests "... old war films never die-they just mutate."]

Cook, David A. Lost illusions : American cinema in the shadow of Watergate and Vietnam, 1970-1979 New York : Scribner's, 1999. (scattered sections)

[Provides a concise overview of antiwar film themes, combat films, cultural impact, disillusionment, Vietnam Westerns, vigilante films, etc. Makes significant references to twenty Vietnam War related films. Bibliography and index]

Corliss, Richard. "Guns and buttered popcorn : Vietnam movies" New times (Mar 20, 1978), p. 65-8.

[Discusses some of the first wave of Vietnam War films released on the tenth anniversary of its most traumatic year. He finds that recent WWII movies (How I won the war, Patton, and A bridge too far) are really about Vietnam. Comments in depth on The boys in Company C and Coming home]

Cosford, Bill. "Realism, not art, has become yardstick for Vietnam movies" Miami herald (Aug 28, 1987), Amusements, p. 1D.

[The second wave of Vietnam War films, which has come to an end with Hamburger Hill, has stopped any "skepticism regarding the box-office potential of the Vietnam story." Unlike the first wave of films in the late 1970s, the new wave was "simple, familiar and ideologically palatable." The debate about these films centers on whose film is more "realistic."]

* Cotterill, Steven. Hollywood remembers? A critical analysis of the film industry's portrayal of the Vietnam War Thesis (M.A.)--Central Connecticut State University, 1992. (iii, 101 leaves)

Covino, Michael. "Vietnam : The movies" Express [Berkeley] 10/26 (Apr 8, 1988), p. 9-14.

[Analyzes and compares the first and second waves of Vietnam War films. Finds that ten or fifteen years after the fact, filmmakers, screenwriters and actors, "folks who never set foot in Vietnam," now find themselves afflicted with Poet-Vietnam Stress Syndrome whose symptoms include: massive hallucinations, amnesia, and delusions of grandeur alternating with delusions of persecution - all punctuated by psychotic outbursts of violence]

Cultural legacies of Vietnam : Uses of the past in the present (edited by Richard Morris and Peter Ehrenhaus) Norwood, N.J. : Ablex Pub. Corp., 1990.

[A collection of 10 essays (including 3 on film and television) which grew from a 1985 conference organized by the editors at Rutgers University. Relevant articles cited separately]

Cunningham, Ann Marie. "Films and Vietnam: Looking away: Hollywood and Vietnam by Julian Smith" Progressive (Oct 1975), p. 58-9.

[Book review. "Smith has tried to present Looking away as a personal scrapbook… Aside from the introduction and first chapter, his personal passages are not successful… When Smith stays away from impressionistic asides, it is easier for the reader to concentrate on the valuable things he has to say." Smith "documents one reason why we went to Vietnam: we thought war was romantic and one place we got that notion was the movies."]

Curley, Stephen J. (see under Wetta, Frank Joseph)

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