Biology

Program Description

The Biology Department of La Salle University is dedicated to the Lasallian tradition of excellence in teaching. We are committed to developing the full intellectual, personal, and social potential of our students in an environment of mutual respect and cooperation.

The faculty of La Salle's Biology Department serves qualified students interested in pursuing further education and careers in the life sciences, health professions,  and science education. In addition, we provide for non-science majors a variety of foundation level courses that explore biological issues of interest and concern to the general public.

La Salle has a long and proud tradition of training undergraduates for admission to health profession schools. We believe it important to provide these undergraduates with courses that emphasize the general principles of the life sciences and that address a diverse range of current scientific issues. We are equally committed to preparing students for graduate work in the life sciences, for careers in scientific/clinical technology, or for careers in science education by providing them with broadly-based theoretical and laboratory training. We feel the development of critical thinking skills and the establishment of a firm understanding of the foundational principles of the life sciences are the best preparation for more specialized professional and graduate training.

We believe the academic experience should provide an opportunity for mutual advancement and sharing of excitement for science through supportive yet challenging dialogue among faculty and students.

Why take this major?

The Biology program fosters a deep understanding of foundational knowledge in the life sciences and encourages students to apply this understanding in laboratory research projects that develop critical thinking skills and scientific reasoning. This training allows students to pursue a broad range of opportunities related to the life sciences including medical or graduate school and careers in the health professions, scientific/clinical technology, or science education.

Student Learning Outcomes

  • Locate, recognize, evaluate and apply foundational knowledge in biology in an accurate and effective manner.
  • Apply scientific and quantitative reasoning to explore, analyze and question biological phenomena.
  • Use the tools and technologies of modern biology appropriately to collect data and address scientific hypotheses.
  • Communicate scientific information effectively both orally and in writing.

Program Contact Information

Stefan Samulewicz, Chair

samulewi@lasalle.edu

215-951-1251

Degree Earned

B.S.

Number of Courses Required for Graduation

Major: 15

Total: 38

Number of Credits Required for Graduation

Major: Minimum of 60

Total: 120 to 126 depending on Biology electives chosen

GPA Required for Graduation

Major: 2.0

Cumulative: 2.0

Progress Chart

Level One - Core Courses

12 courses and 2 modules required

Universal Required Courses (4 Courses)

Students must complete the following 4 courses.

ILO 8.1: Written Communication

ENG 110 - College Writing I: Persuasion

ILO 5.1: Information Literacy

ENG 210 - College Writing II: Research

ILO 1.1: Understanding Diverse Perspectives

FYS 130 - First-Year Academic Seminar **

NOTE. The following students use Level 2 Capstone Experience in Major instead of FYS 130: Honors, BUSCA, Core-to-Core, Transfer, and Non-Traditional/Evening.

ILO 2.1: Reflective Thinking and Valuing

REL 100 - Religion Matters

Elective Core Courses (4 Courses)

Students must complete 1 course in each of the following 4 ILOs.

ILO 3.1a: Scientific Reasoning

BIO 204 - Antibiotic Discovery

ILO 3.1b: Quantitative Reasoning

MTH 120 - Calculus I

ILO 6.1: Technological Competency

Choose course within ILO

ILO 8.1a/12.1: Oral Communication/ Collaborative Engagement

Choose course within ILO

Distinct Discipline Core Courses (4 Courses)

Students must complete 1 course in each of the following 4 ILOs. Each course must be from a different discipline. (A "discipline" is represented by the 3- or 4-letter prefix attached to each course.)

ILO 4.1: Critical Analysis and Reasoning

Choose course within ILO

ILO 9.1: Creative and Artistic Expression

Choose course within ILO

ILO 10.1: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning

Choose course within ILO

ILO 11.1: Cultural and Global Awareness and Sensitivity

Choose course within ILO

Universal Required Modules (2 Courses)

Students must complete the following 2 non-credit modules.
The Modules are not required for Transfer Students, Core-to-Core Students, or BUSCA Students. BUSCA students are required to take modules if/when they pursue a bachelor’s degree.

ILO 7.1a

Health Literacy Module

ILO 7.1b

Financial Literacy Module

Major Requirements

Major requirements include 4 Level Two ILO requirements, fulfilled through the major.

Students in this major must complete 38 courses in total in order to graduate. 15 courses will be from this major program.

Level Two (4 Courses)

Students must complete 1 course/learning experience in each of the 4 commitments.

ILO 2.2: Broader Identity (Capstone Course/Experience)

Bio 480 or Bio 453 or Bio 454

Choose one ILO from 3.2a, 3.2b, 4.2, 5.2, 6.2, 7.2a, or 7.2b: Expanded Literacies

BIO 412 - ILO 3.2a

ILO 8.2b: Effective Expression (Writing-Intensive Course)

BIO 413 - 8.2b

Choose on ILO from 10.2, 11.2, or 12.2: Active Responsibility

BIO 230 - ILO 12.2

All Other Required Courses

BIO 210 - Integrated Biology I-Molecules and Cells
BIO 230 - Integrated Biology II-Populations and Systems
BIO 250- Phages Genomics
BIO 320- Biostatistics
BIO 412 - Biochemistry
BIO 413 - Molecular Biology
BIO 480- Research, or BIO 453-Molecular Capstone, or BIO 454-Systems Capstone

4 additional 300/400-level biology courses to total a minimum of 11 Biology courses

CHM 161- Chemistry for the Life Sciences or (CHM 111 - General Chemistry I and CHM 112 - General Chemistry II)
CHM 262- Organic Chemistry for the Life Sciences or CHM 201 - Organic Chemistry I

MTH 120 - Calculus I

Free Electives

In addition to the requirements listed above, students must take enough courses to the fulfill graduation credit requirements for their School and major.

Minor Requirements

REQUIRED FOR MINOR IN BIOLOGY:

BIO 204
BIO 210
BIO 230

Three additional courses from the 300/400 level

REQUIRED FOR MINOR IN TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE:

BIO 471- Science Regulatory Affairs

BIO 241- Product Development and Validation

BIO 271- Risk and Failure Analysis

BIO 303- Microbiology

BUS 101- Financial Accounting

BIO 330- Life Science Innovation

Freshman Year

 
Fall   Spring  
Biology 204   Biology 210  
Chemistry 111   Chemistry 112  
       

Sophomore Year

 
Fall   Spring  
Biology 230   Biology 250 Phage Genomics  
Chemistry 201   Biology 412 Biochemistry  
Math 113 or Math 120   Math 120  
       

Junior Year

 
Fall   Spring  
Biology 413   Biology Elective  
Biology Elective   Biology Elective  
       

Senior Year

 
Fall   Spring  
Biology Elective or Capstone   Biology Elective or Capstone  
Biology Elective      
       

* This is a "typical" schedule. Career path may determine Chemistry course sequence.

Course Descriptions

BIO 157 - Life Science: An Environmental Approach

This foundation biology course for non-majors places emphasis on the unifying concepts of ecology. It is intended to demonstrate interconnections between the life and physical sciences, provide opportunity for in-depth exploration of environmental issues, and establish a relevance to students' lives. Topics will include human influence on patterns and products of change in living systems, energy matter and organization, and human interaction and interdependence with other living systems.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Fall, Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

ILO Met: ILO 3.1.a - Scientific Reasoning

BIO 158 - Life Science: A Human Approach

This foundation biology course for non-majors places emphasis on the unifying concepts of human biology. It is intended to demonstrate interconnections between the life and physical sciences, provide opportunity for in-depth exploration of life, and establish a relevance to students' lives. Topics will include: maintaining dynamic equilibrium in humans, human reproduction and inheritance, and human growth and differentiation.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Fall, Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

ILO Met: ILO 3.1.a - Scientific Reasoning

BIO 161-162 - Anatomy and Physiology

This basic course in the structure and functioning of the human body places emphasis on the interrelationships of the major organ systems. It is intended for Allied Health students. Three hours of lecture, two hours of laboratory; two terms.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer

How Offered: Face-to-Face, Hybrid

Prerequisites: BIO 161 is a prerequisite for BIO 162.

ILO Met: ILO 3.1.a - Scientific Reasoning

BIO 163 - Clinical Microbiology

Topics of this course include structure, growth, and identification of medically important microorganisms; role of specific pathogens in the etiology of human disease; immunology; chemotherapeutic and antibiotic control of infectious diseases. It is intended for Allied Health students. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall, Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

BIO 204 - Antibiotic Discovery

In this course, students will engage in an authentic research project and gain experience in the process of scientific inquiry, including hypothesis generation and testing, data interpretation and analysis, communication of information, and common techniques for microbial culture and
characterization. Students enrolled in the course will be part of a national crowdsourcing initiative to discover new antibiotics produced by soil bacteria. The collective effort of students addresses a critical global health crisis, the decreasing supply of effective antibiotics and increasing microbial resistance. 6 hour CURE course.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

ILO Met: ILO 3.1.a - Scientific Reasoning

BIO 205 - Scientific Discovery: Phage Hunting I

This course is designed to teach students how to do scientific research. It is the first semester of a year-long research-based project lab course in which students will participate in a nation-wide program in collaboration with undergraduates at other colleges. Students will isolate and characterize novel bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) from the environment using modern molecular biology techniques. (Cross-listed as ISBT 103)

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

ILO Met: ILO 3.1.a - Scientific Reasoning

BIO 210 - Integrated Biology I- Molecules and Cells

This course provides an introduction to five core concepts in biology (Information, Evolution, Cells, Homeostasis, and Emergent Properties) though an active learning, inquiry-based examination of molecules and cells. Critical thinking and  quantitative reasoning are applied to authentic
data to construct foundational knowledge. By  engaging in the process of science, students will gain proficiency in core scientific competencies. 6 hour CURE course.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Spring, Summer

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Restrictions: Students must be eligible for Math 113 or Math 120 and Chem 111

Prerequisites: High school or college chemistry.

BIO 230 - BIO 230-Integrated Biology II: Populations and Systems

This course provides an introduction to five core concepts in biology
(Information, Evolution, Cells, Homeostasis, and Emergent Properties) though an active learning, inquiry-based examination obiological problems spanning from cells to ecosystems. Data analysis and synthesis are applied to authentic data to construct foundational knowledge. By engaging in the process of science, students will gain
proficiency in core scientific competencies.

Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 210

BIO 231 - Regulatory Affairs

This course, as part of the Quality Science Education curriculum developed by Pathway for Patient Health, will give students an understanding of the role of regulators with an overview of regulations as stated in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), EudraLex Directives and Annexes, and Emerging Market regulations for the life science industries. The faculty will demonstrate the relationship between regulatory requirements and legal accountability while introducing fundamental concepts in the regulations related to clinical trial development, management, ethics, data integrity, data security, privacy, change control, and validation. Topics such as the role of guidance documents and industry standards will be reviewed, and case studies utilized to support the program. The "why" of the regulations will support the student's ability to enter the life science industry with an understanding of how to optimize patient health and business success by mobilizing enterprise-wide quality effectiveness through innovative system and critical thinking grounded in science, data, stakeholder awareness and regulatory intelligence.

Number of Credits: 3

How Offered: Face-to-Face, Online

BIO 241 - Product Dev & Validation

In this course, students will be exposed to the major design processes that are critical to life science product, process and specification development. Topics to be covered include: cradle to grave product and process development, prototype builds, scalability, design of experiments, variability, control, specification development and validation methodology. Instructors will explore how rigorous human factor engineering studies and clinical trials provide essential inputs into the product development process. The students will be introduced to concepts such as gap analysis, risk assessment, master plan, process characterization, installation qualification, operational qualification, measurement system analysis, repeatability and reproducibility (data collection/analysis), performance qualification/validation. In a world of innovative technology, it is critical that the students gain an understanding of computer system and software validation to ensure the quality of data generation, data storage, and digital processes used in manufacturing and products with digital components using technical and practical aspects expected in the regulated life science industries.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: BIO 231

BIO 250 - Phage Genomics

This is the second semester ("Phage 2") of a year-long research-based project lab course in which students will participate in a nationwide program in collaboration with undergraduates at other  colleges. Students will describe the basic genome structure. This will involve mastering the strategies and computer programs required to predict where genes are located in the genome and annotating the function of those genes. These results will be presented for peer-review and will likely result in a scientific publication for the student.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: BIO 210 or ISBT 103

BIO 271 - Risk and Failure Analysis

This Pathways developed course introduces students to the investigation processes and writing scientifically justified conclusions linked to true root cause.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Online, Hybrid

Prerequisites: BIO 231

BIO 301 - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

This course examines the comparative systemic anatomy of the vertebrate classes, hypotheses of origin, and radiation of the phylum Chordata. Laboratory dissections of representative Chordates from amphioxus to mammal. Two hours lecture; four hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 303 - Microbiology

This course addresses the structure, growth, identification, and control of microorganisms of major medical, environmental, and industrial importance; molecular control and genetics of bacteria and viruses; immunology; microbial pathogenesis; and epidemiology of infectious diseases of humans. 6 hour CURE course.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: C- or higher grade in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 305 - Mammalian Physiology

This lecture-laboratory course examines the metabolic processes and associated physiochemical phenomena of mammals. Current physiological hypotheses of the nervous, endocrine, respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive systems, as well as special senses, will be studied. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 310 - Genetics

This course is an introduction to genetics at the molecular, cytological, and organismal level. Included are the thorough coverage of Mendelian and other basic transmission genetics phenomena in the light of our knowledge of DNA and cell structure and function; mutation and mutagenesis; and an introduction to recombinant DNA. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 317 - Invertebrate Zoology

Topics of this course involve life processes, phylogenetic advances, and basic classification of the major pre-chordate phyla with emphasis on their evolution and ecology. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 318 - Evolution

This course involves a presentation and analysis of the evidence for the evolution of life. Major topics include the origin of life and cellular organelles as well as the development of the diversity of life present today. Heavy emphasis will be placed on the ideas of Charles Darwin as expanded and modified by evidence from modern population genetics, cytogenetics, and molecular biology. Three hours lecture.

Number of Credits: 3

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 319 - The Plant Kingdom

Topics of this course involve functional anatomy, phylogeny, and basic systematics of non-vascular and vascular plants. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 3

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 320 - Biostatistics

Introduction to statistical analysis and probability for students in the biological sciences. Topics include summary statistics, graphical display of data, likelihood, experimental design, binomial and Gaussian probability, hypothesis testing, t-tests, analysis of variance, correlation, linear regression, and chi-square analyses.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 330 - Life Science Innovation

This course is open to students interested in learning how to commercialize new technologies. Teams of science and business students will work with inventor-scientists at the Wistar Institute—as well as with external partners such as venture capitalists, intellectual property lawyers, and biotechnology entrepreneurs—to develop proposals on the scientific merit and commercial feasibility of life science research projects. Students should have either a scientific or business background to enroll in this course. (Cross-listed as MGT 330 and ISBT 330)

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 400 - Marine Biology

This course offers a contemporary view of the dynamics establishing community structure in pelagic, estuarine, mangrove tidepool, coral reef, hydrothermal vent, and intertidal ecosystems. Structural, functional, behavioral, and adaptive modifications of marine organisms will be examined. Three hours lecture; field trip(s) typically included.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 402 - Cell Biology

This course examines the physical properties, chemical structure, and metabolism of simple and specialized cells, as well as recent advances in the techniques of cell culture and investigation. Two hours lecture; two hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 403 - Principles of Ecology

This course addresses the basic concepts of ecology and a broad introduction to overall biosphere functioning. Major topics include energy flows; nutrient cycles; environmental conditions and their importance; plants and animals at the individual, population, and community level; and the overall functioning and development of the major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Three hours lecture.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 404 - Field Ecology

This course involves field and laboratory projects/research at La Salle's Penllyn Biostation and other sites. Six hours laboratory and field work.

Number of Credits: 3

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: BIO 403 or permission of instructor

BIO 405 - Histology

This course focuses on an examination of the minute and ultra structure of mammalian primary tissues together with their functional relationships in the formation of major organ systems; histological basis of function is stressed. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 406 - Developmental Biology

This course focuses on the molecular and genetic analysis of development and differentiation. Some descriptive morphogenesis is considered. Two hours lecture; two hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 3

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 412 - Biochemistry

The course demonstrates the principles of basic biochemistry while focusing on the interrelationships between those biochemical pathways that provide energy and those that provide the basic molecular species for synthesis. Topics include bioenergetics, low molecular weight biosynthesis, enzyme function and kinetics, and metabolic control. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Fall

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 413 - Molecular Biology

This is a survey course that will examine the basic concepts of molecular biology. Topics include mechanisms and regulation of DNA replication, transcription, and translation, recombinant DNA technology, molecular aspects of gene interaction and recombination, cellular transformation, and the molecular biology of the nervous and immune systems. The laboratory focuses on utilizing the basic techniques currently employed in molecular biology (molecular cloning, ELISA, genetic recombination, gel electrophoresis, etc.) Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: BIO 412

BIO 420 - Genomics

The Genomics course will be a hybrid lecture and hands-on computer course. This course will focus on the topic of genome organization and the bioinformatic tools that are used to study genomes. We will investigate the genome structure of viral, microbial, and eukaryotic genomes and the different databases used to store and access this data. DNA sequence analysis using the BLAST algorithm and multiple sequence alignments will be studied. Identifying genes and genomic elements using different computational tools will be performed.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 422 - Virology

This is a survey course designed to be an introduction to the history and diversity of viruses on Earth. The lectures and topics in class will focus primarily on viruses that cause human disease, but will also include important viruses of other organism. While this class is primarily about the molecular biology of viruses, it will cover clinical symptoms and epidemiology too. This course will also focus on recent scientific literature of important disease-causing viruses.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 427 - Immunology

This is a survey course designed to be an introduction to the immune system of humans and other mammals. We will cover the development and physiology of specialized immune system cells, tissues and organs; we will also learn about these structures protect against harmful agents and pathogens. While this course is centered around a textbook, primary literature will feature heavily, both in instructor and student led presentations.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 430 - The Biology of Cancer

The cellular and molecular mechanisms driving cancer's hallmark phenotypes will be explored. These include proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, activating invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. Within these conceptual frameworks, primary scientific literature will be examined and clinical implications of the research evaluated. Students will choose a specific area of interest, allowing them to develop an in-depth understanding of the current "state-of-the-art" in a field of research. Students will gain an informed understanding of the inherent challenges cancer presents and assess the prospects of treating and ultimately curing the disease.

Number of Credits: 3

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 460 - Cooperative Education/Internship

This is normally a full-time, paid employment at a cooperating institution/company to provide on-the-job training (part-time positions may qualify). It involves appropriate job-related learning assignments under faculty supervision. Position must be approved by Department Chair. Consult the Associate Director for Experiential Education in Career Services before registering or for further information.

Number of Credits: 3

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 470 - Special Topics in Biology

Periodically, a course will be offered that deals in detail with a topic of interest in current biological research. Students may be asked to write library research paper(s) and present a seminar.

Number of Credits: 3

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 472 - Neurobiology

This course involves a lecture-laboratory study of the nervous system, including principles of membrane biophysics, cellular neurophysiology, systems neurophysiology, and neuroanatomy. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory.

Number of Credits: 4

When Offered: Spring

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.

BIO 480-481 - Biological Research

This research is for election by qualified students contemplating advanced studies. It is intended to provide actual research experience under staff supervision. Students are required to present a seminar on their work and to prepare a poster. Hours to be arranged.

Number of Credits: 3 each

How Offered: Face-to-Face

Prerequisites: A final grade of C- or higher in BIO 230 is required in order to advance to 300/400-level BIO courses.